Meticulous and efficient HR Executive with approx 1 year of experience in hiring and training procedures for new employees, Coordinate and direct work activities for managers and employees and promote a positive and open work environment both on national and international scales.
CEO is a position of leadership; it is position that not only organization but also the management looks up to for constructive ideas and strategies. The model is built around other theories about people’s positions and projections. It is provided by other competent consultants’ practical experiences and perceptions and my own analysis and considerations. Thus, I cannot point out all the theories and people who have inspired me and would therefore, recommend that you also continue your search for knowledge and inspiration elsewhere. For me, the intention has always been about practicality, namely what works, rather than who has said or written it. To me there is no patent on truths, and therefore I also share my knowledge and my assumptions with you, so you can take what you think works best for you. For each level, and to get from position to position, there is an ocean of personal development steps. Therefore, there is a diverse range of types and levels of development at each stage. Some people may just “land” on a new step, others have been there for a while, some will not continue, and others will be on their way to the next step. Just as we are different as people, we also act as leaders in a very different way. However, I have learnt that these very simplified personality traits reoccur. It is through this that we can recognize which management level a person is on and thus also ourselves, in any given period of time. This makes working with leadership training easier to handle, and the training can be better addressed and adapted to the individual.
Let us begin by looking at “The 7 Leadership Levels”:
1. POSITION NO.1: YOURSELF
It is who you are. It is not what you do, but the person you are. Your identity, your ego, your embodiment. What you are born as. The person you were born as. When you are born, you are just you. You are born loved and you are born free. Very soon you begin to perceive that there is a world and someone around you. You begin to discover yourself through others perception of you. You mirror yourself on others, and this mirroring (projection) starts your self-perception; Who am I? It is subjectively considered. It’s through your sensations that you begin to shape yourself. Here in the 1st position, you start as a leader, first and foremost to take responsibility for yourself! This is where you must always return, to be the leader of your own life. This is where you need to place your consciousness so that you can draw the maximum amount of energy you need. Many do not go beyond this and some go through life without having their own position connected to their personality. They can easily be happy people who think they have got a lot of good out of life, and it is possible for them to accomplish anything. They just do not have the same outlook as you regarding leadership. We must remember our 1st position because this is where everything stems from. All our potential comes from here. It is our identity, the one we were born with, our building block. I call it also our epicentre. Grab your epicentre, and then let the rings spread out into the world from here, with a big uproar, big reverberations. It is not being selfish. It is about using your potential in the best possible way, so that you can make the greatest difference both for yourself and for others. The training at this level is primarily about how to handle yourself. I want to use a good little model devised by another astute consultant, which I call “The Three Kites”. Imagine that you have three big flying kites in your hands. The lines are unbreakable and cannot be snapped, but when it is very windy, you need to clench tight and use a lot of effort to hold the kites. The kites are your body, your thoughts, and your emotions, respectively. You, the one holding the lines, are the Lord of the house: Your consciousness. The contact to your consciousness lies in the lines, which are controlled by deep breathing. Therefore, you must breathe deeply to feel the touch of consciousness. Take a deep breath. Feel yourself inside.
The model illustrates several things, but first and foremost it is about what we can and cannot control. When it is not windy, you have the feeling of control over your body, thoughts, and emotions. You are in control! Then comes a hurricane from the west, and you feel, to some extent, that this is something that you have no control over. You fight and struggle hard to maintain some control.
I often see people in this fight for control while at the same time, fighting internally. The more they fight to hold the kites, the less they remember to breathe deeply and the more they fight internally, the worse it will be. What do you do?
1. Stop this inner battle with yourself. Fight for yourself.
2. Breathe deeply. Observe your emotions. You do not need to control – you have to deal with it and go with the flow! Become a good kite flyer instead and trust that the lines will probably hold. The storm will move away again.
A storm can easily hit just one of the kites, for example, anxious thoughts and doubts. The thought-kite now requires all your energy, and its turmoil is transmitted to the other two kites. Your emotions-kite now also begins to float uncontrollably, and your body-kite begins to spin around.
• Take a deep breathe.
• Take control of your thoughts by consciously stopping the concerns and focusing on other positive thoughts.
• Handle the situation instead of picturing yourself having to completely stop and control all your thoughts. Just let them fly, like the kites, gently in the wind.
• There are differences between these thoughts and your conscious thoughts. Use your conscious thoughts for handling these concerns and let the others float away.
At worst, worrying thoughts may take the form of anxiety, which creates a blockage further down all three lines, thus obstructing access to your consciousness. Your body can become sick with anxiety because it cannot live an extended period without contact with your consciousness. Your emotions worsen, and you feel a darkness or depression. Here you may need outside help that can dissipate the anxiety in the blockage. However, you must also go deep inside yourself and feel your life energy, the love of life. From here you can gather the energy that is vital to you. The power of love is so great that it can solve the anxiety, although it may take some time, as the opposition to love is fear.
Do not fear life, love it instead.
POSITION NO. 2: YOURSELF, SEEN THROUGH THE EYES OF OTHERS
As we grow up, we begin to see others in the world. The first people you mirror yourself on are your parents, biological or not. You start to put yourself in the other’s place and begin to see the world from here, including yourself. It is still subjective, through your experiences, and you begin to imagine where your 1st position is placed in the 2nd position. We practise this mirroring or projection throughout our lives. The responses that we receive add to both our own attitudes, assumptions, and values, and also the thoughts we unconsciously accumulate. We are greatly influenced, and many researchers believe that 70% of our own perception is governed through our upbringing and the environment. Therefore, pattern breakers have used unimaginable amounts of energy and self-reflection to break this influence to become anything else than they assumed they would be. The ability to mirror will create empathetic behaviour for healthy people of sound mind. People with mental deficiencies, e.g. renowned psychopaths, can be fantastic at emulating empathy, that is, the ability to understand the effect of this behaviour on others. However, they lack an emotional connection with other people, and they therefore cannot be empathetic. They are totally selfish in their behaviour. Some people focus so much on the 2nd position, and are so good at this, that they are hardly being their true selves anymore. They always see themselves as they think others see them. They become very empathetic, constrained through being self-effacing, and forget about themselves at the expense of others. It happens to many people, and I think it may occur more with women. This is, perhaps, because they principally develop this ability through motherhood and hence their own mothers, whom are their role models. They make “sacrifices” for their children on the assumption that they are doing the best for them. Being so focused on others is often governed by a great need to be recognized. When you are in the 2nd position, it is through other people and their articulations that you can perceive yourself in life, and not so much through self-recognition and self-love. Consequently, for some people, a resolute addiction to recognition from others can arise. These people are unable to self-acknowledge and instead spend extensive energy and time on others, so that they can reap this recognition. It can become rather morbid and to some extent becomes inhibitory to acknowledge themselves.
This almost constant sense of powerlessness makes them unhappy, and in the worst case it begins to erode their self-perception. They have thoughts such as, I’m not good enough, I’m worth nothing, I cannot get out of this situation.
They feel like victims with statements like, I cannot do it myself, it’s the fault of others and the stupid boss who does not understand me. No matter what reactions you get from others, regardless of the situations you are in, you should practise becoming aware that your emotions and thoughts, that belong only to yourself. It is you and only you who can change this. Emotions are emotions, but you can, with conscious thoughts and conscious self-chosen focus, change your emotions. You can especially change those that are close to exploding, often in front of others in actions or statements, we later regret. The greatest expectations on our performance, are often our own. You are, in other words, your own worst enemy or worst boss. Become friends with yourself. Change your inner boss.
Working with these positions, or personal development, means that none of us can consider ourselves free of the above to a greater or lesser extent, at some point in life. We cannot develop from the 1st position and higher up without going through all the phases, and each phase has its own learning steps. It is through the 1st position that you can draw on the energy of life within yourself. You cannot do that to the same extent if you place yourself extensively in the 2nd position. Here, you are only able to pull a fraction of your life energy into your work and this causes imbalance and fatigue. You simply get worn out. The training at this level is primarily about becoming aware of how you see yourself and how you get in touch with your feelings.
The good news for you, located extensively in the 2nd position, is that you can do something about it. Through breathing, reflection, willpower and realization you can train to become aware of yourself a little better, and slowly start making the choices that are appropriate to you.
Tap into your experiences to use more positive energy and more flow as your guidelines.
Begin practicing by observing and writing your observations:
i. What gives you energy?
ii. What consumes your energy?
iii. When does it occur?
iv. What do you do in this situation?
v. When we need to practise something, we must become both aware of what we are good at doing and what we do less well. If you are not even aware of what you do well, how will you do it even better?
Become more consciously aware of your thoughts and focus positively on those thoughts. Stop the negative feelings and all your concerns, by consciously focusing on the more positive ones. There are also habits/habitual thinking, and therefore there is a need for a lot of practice. It does not require more preparation, and therefore you are already in progress. Take it one step at a time. 2nd position leaders are generally empathetic, industrious, responsive, and often seen in middle management positions. There are several women who are 2nd position leaders and very skilful in that position, thus it’s definitely not everyone who gets stressed. However, there is a tendency for this to become stressful if they do not learn to move from the 2nd to the 3rd position in their leadership development. Most often they see themselves as helpers rather than leaders, and unfortunately become victims or martyrs, if they do not pay attention to their own worth and their role. Some choose to remain the leader at this level, and they certainly also do a lot for others and thus, for the world. It is no shame and there is, to some extent, a need for all types of leaders. If you recognize yourself as a 2nd position leader, then train yourself to move from the 1st position so you can acquire even more energy for the important work that you do. Practise becoming more aware of yourself and your way of life and remember that self-effacement does not make anyone feel good.
When you, in this way, consciously work with yourself, you also work with your personal integrity. It is your greatest protection against, for example, stress and demanding tasks and circumstances. Find the best approach for you. Find out how to take best care of yourself. Prioritize yourself as much as possible, because without yourself, you cannot do anything for others.
POSITION NO. 3: YOURSELF AND OTHERS, SEEN THROUGH INTERACTION
Regardless of the managerial context you have worked in, you have had some experience of this position or, if nothing else, a small glimpse of it. Here I would like to point out that it is not just about leadership in the organizational context, where you have a formal executive role. It is also in all responsible posts, including parenthood, where you have a responsibility and obligations. It is precisely the role of taking responsibility as a leader that places you in the 3rd position. The metaposition, as it is also called in psychology, is the ability to see yourself objectively, but still maintain a very subjective foundation in your sensory experiences. The transition from the 2nd to the 3rd position takes place gradually over time, and therefore you can work satisfactorily in both positions, depending on the context, terms, and framework. When you are a 3rd position leader, you relate to yourself and take responsibility for your own roles and the influence your own actions have on others. You are also aware of how other people´s actions affect yourself. You work more consciously with yourself and begin to sort through your thoughts, so that you are no longer so affected by what others think about you. Your personal limits open up to you and you become more aware of where your own boundaries stretch to and where you want them to go. This is also where you become aware of your own integrity. The work of sorting through your thoughts includes cleansing. This is the process of clearing out in your life, your relationships and the things that consciously and unconsciously allow you to influence and therefore, take control of. Here in the western world, we are all too often in control of material things. The more we own, the more afraid we become of losing them. Remember a wise old saying here, “everything in life is borrowed”. We come into the world with nothing and we leave it again taking nothing with us. You may wish to dress up in gold and silver, however, do not let your clothes alone define who you are. For doing so, you lose yourself along the way. Most leaders are in the 3rd position, and many of them remain here. They definitely play essential roles in the world. They work responsibly, earnestly, loyally and always from their own viewpoint, with the best intentions. Every day they practise interacting with others in the best possible way, as they see it. It is indeed learning by doing that characterizes leaders in the 3rd position. Here we find initiators, entrepreneurs, helpers and all the types of leaders we can think of. Working as a leader is not about being smart enough. Regardless of other skills or the lack of them, it is about the person themselves. I have experienced many people who have been given leadership roles/management posts solely based on their professionalism. They have not acquired leadership skills, and that is not good for neither them nor their employees. Many executives are not even 3rd position leaders, and it disappoints employees who expect more of them.
Remember, you may be at a much higher personal level of development than your boss, and therefore you also expect the same from him or her. However, they are not at your level and not because they do not want to be. We can learn a lot about leadership by taking an education in it, but my experience is that it alone is not enough. Unfortunately, there are people, who are not fully aware of this. Leadership is about training and there should be a place for this training, support and guidance in daily life. This can take place via mentors and coaches, and it is not so important whether they are located inside an organization or recruited externally. However, it is in the workplace itself, through daily casework and on the job experience that the training takes place, and it is best to have sparring partners and/or coaches. We can learn so much from each other if we allow ourselves to embrace this and have the necessary time for it. A master can learn from his student, just as the student can learn from his master. This is because leadership is primarily about how we as people, human beings, handle our inner feelings and thoughts. These are non-tangible matters which are incredibly important. Unfortunately, we cannot find an 8-point strategic plan, where you start with level 1 and end with level 8, and then you are a leader. It requires a lot of courage, endurance, persistence, understanding, constant curiosity and desire to learn, with both a mix of openness and inner scope. It involves respect, self-respect and working on your humility and self-understanding. Also, you need to understand that we will never be finished. Every time we think we have learnt something and can handle situations and ourselves in situations, something new happens. We must learn to understand without understanding. The world and we humans are so complex that we use all our energy to understand life externally, and thus we lose our understanding of ourselves. The focus and the energy that we use do not allow us to be constructive. The training at this level is primarily about how you understand and take responsibility for yourself. Start by building an understanding of yourself, your potential, and getting the most out of yourself to become the asset that you are. As the 3rd position is so real, familiar to many and a stable step, and at the same time with scope for many personal development steps, there are extraordinarily many that remain at this management level. For many it is also about peace of mind, to stay in their comfort zone. It is also the position where habits are placed, and so it can seem too difficult and inconceivable to move on. Many may occasionally feel a little pang to want something more but dismiss it. I am as good as I can be. There is no need to complain because, for the most part, it is nice and easy, effortless, and convenient. Why changes the status quo? There are daily challenges, but I can handle them, and that is basically quite a reasonable response. So, I can also take retirement in peace and quiet when ready, and I have savings for other things that I prioritize in my life.
POSITION NO.4: YOURSELF, SEEN OBJECTIVELY (INTERMEDIATE STAGE)
Before I explain in more detail about this level, it is important to emphasize that even though we move up through the leadership positions, we continuing to work on all the underlying positions. There are always new situations arising that we must learn to deal with, and we are constantly discovering and becoming aware of new aspects to ourselves via training and refinement. Again, it is not a job we will ever finish. As mentioned earlier with personal development, it relates to gaining awareness of ourselves as leaders at the different levels and we cannot go back again. Once you have arrived at the 3rd position or 3rd level, you can no longer go back and not have the awareness of what the 3rd position means for you. At each position there are countless personal development steps, in which you lift your energy (almost pure quantum physics), without necessarily having elevated yourself to a new leadership position. Leadership development is also personal development, but you can easily develop yourself personally without developing yourself as a leader. The 4th position is an awareness level, which extends beyond your sensory/physical experiences, illustrated by the dotted line in the figure. The dotted line in figure 4 also illustrates the transition from a physical perspective to a more universal perspective, where the Law of love is the greatest (a concept from spiritual and existentialism learning), and where the Law of Attractions also have a strong impact. People who do not utilise the power of love for themselves, for life and thus for others, will not be able to reach the fourth position or higher. At this level you are very conscious of what you are thinking, where you come from, what has shaped you and continues to shape you. You are very aware of what you feel, what triggers your feelings and what assumptions and values lie behind your feelings. You are aware that thoughts and emotions cannot be controlled, but that they are something you should always learn to deal with. Therefore, you are both strong and extremely vulnerable at the same time because you are constantly in a learning process. Your intuition is indeed also in play here, and you begin to understand that the more you learn about things, the more you find that there are many things you do not know about and are lacking in knowledge. You have thoughts of wonder and are very curious. It is the most unstable position because you are actually in a state of being “in between”. An intermediate stage. You are beyond the 3rd position but have still not reached the 5th position. Most people stay here, somewhere between the 3rd and 4th position. There is also a lot to learn here, and awareness is constantly increasing. They get glimpses of themselves and situations, seen from the 4th position, as they enter their daily work in the other 3 positions. To be constantly learning about awareness is an ongoing exercise, and it is hard work that certainly requires something from a person. Therefore, the position becomes unstable because we cannot stay here all the time. When you are in the 4th position, it feels internally like a personal divide and you may choose, from time to time, consciously or unconsciously, to rest for a while in the 3rd position. It can also give a feeling of personal dissatisfaction, an uncomfortable sensation, and it can be a feeling that can last for many years. This is because circumstances require our full presence, e.g. in the 3rd position, where the operation and interaction with our fellow human beings consumes most of our time. The training at this level is primarily about how you consciously work with intuition. For people who want to exercise their intuition somewhat more and learn more about complexity (without going too deeply), it is a great place to be. It is extremely exciting because it is so instructive, and you feel so alive and part of life. You can feel its presence when it is greatest. It is indulgence, creativity, and personal growth with great style. In connection with this, I would also like to highlight intuitive training from two perspectives:
i. the intuitive stomach sensation and intuition from consciousness.
ii. The intuitive stomach feeling is based on everything we register with our five senses. Our own life experiences that are stored in the body. We can train ourselves to listen more to this stomach sensation and act upon it. It requires the self-confidence that we trust our instincts and experiences, and our ability to make reasonable choices. This is because we know that we are always trying to make a choice based on our best belief at the moment we make the decision.
We take responsibility for this choice, and therefore we take responsibility for what we are and can do, at that particular time. Many leaders can benefit more by learning to listen to their intuitive stomach sensations, and it will undoubtedly make everyday a little easier. This is because we do not always have the required time to analyse everything in detail before we take a decision. Learn to trust yourself more, your own intuitive stomach sensations, and of course, be prepared to take the consequences. The other kind of intuition is more diffuse. It is intangible, like an idea or a sudden whim. We listen to something that is not there. We see something that is not there, and yet we know that it is present. Being intuitive. It can relate to everything, from the physical and the professional to the psychological. It takes much greater courage to rely on these experiences, and we often reject them as something silly. We dare not share and involve others in our ideas, thus denying this ability that we have. This kind of intuition is also rejected by many because it may remind them of something spiritual, clairvoyant or a crazy mind. It is rejected as some religious romantic nonsense, and as an intelligent thinking creature, one cannot fall into something as trivial as faith! The greatest physicists, such as Albert Einstein, knew that there is a real power that exists and that instead of fighting it, we should fight more to achieve the greatest possible contact with it.
What you choose to believe in and what you do training-wise, is of course completely up to you. I am just trying to illustrate to you what you can do and how you can use it. I want to give you an understanding of something that it is both an ability and a talent, that requires training, focus and exercise to be able to be used constructively. Some have more talent than others, but if they do not use this talent, then people with less ability can do much better. This applies to all the abilities, skills, and innate talents that we have. If you have the desire, try to work with your intuition, both the one you have in your stomach and the one that comes from your brain or your heart. Listen inside. Practise seeing how often you are right. Recognize your abilities and thereby increase your potential. All people have it, so trust yourself. Do not be afraid. It is not dangerous in any way, and it’s completely up to you how visible you make yourself to others, just do not degrade yourself. Therefore, from the 4th position, we work with what are called the Universal Laws, where the 1st to the 3rd position are the physical laws (action and reaction). The greatest universal law is Love, and therefore you cannot progress onto these levels without love. The Law of Attraction is probably the principle that characterizes the universal laws most, in that we consciously or unconsciously attract things and events. I do not wish to go into detail, but instead refer to other literature on the subject. However, I can point out that, the basis for the reality we both perceive and create for ourselves relates to attitude and thought. There is only a fraction that continue to the 4th position, and even fewer who really train in this position by increasing their awareness. There are also very few capable of reaching the 5th position. However, there are many who glimpse themselves in the 4th position, but that is something else. Use your intuition. Understand without understanding. See the world without understanding everything. Accept things as they are. Recognise that there is a meaning, although it seems meaningless because we cannot see it. Believe that life continues and that the sun will rise tomorrow – even if you do not. Accept your terms. Consider the challenges which you nevertheless cannot change and use your energy to change the things that you really have an influence over. Choose your challenges carefully and above all else, stop fighting yourself. Be patient. Your impatience can be your greatest enemy here in the 4th position. Go with the flow. Believe in fate and start to see and realize where you ought to be heading to and what actions are appropriate for you, making the most of them. Realize that there are things you need to take control of and things that you just need to get rid of completely. Make your choices with your head and your heart. Look after yourself and your core values. Believe in yourself.
POSITION NO. 5: YOURSELF, SEEN WITH HUMILITY
5th position leaders that we meet are inspirational leaders, both in organizations, in politics, NGOs, voluntary jobs and small or large communities. Here we are talking about leadership and not just management, to distinguish between personal leadership and the common perception of a leader, namely a boss or manager. You can be a leader without being a boss or manager. Being a boss is an organizational title and makes it visible to others where responsibility lies, and thus what leadership powers you have been awarded over others. A leader, on the other hand, cannot relinquish responsibility for his personal leadership, his thoughts and actions, and thus the responsibility for the influence bestowed upon others. The influence that a person can exercise in the 5th position, goes far beyond what is immediately apparent from physical obstacles. What seems impossible becomes possible. Think of a person like Nelson Mandela, who lived from 1918 to 2013. He was a South African politician from 1994–1999 and became the country’s first democratically elected president. From the beginning of the 1960s, Mandela was the undisputed leader of South Africa’s greatest liberation movement, the ANC, who fought against the introduction of apartheid from 1948. He was a self-educated lawyer and, in 1952, opened the country’s first black law firm with a partner. By the end of 1961, the ANC decided to launch an armed struggle against white rule. As commander, Mandela was sent for training in Algeria, where he, in 1962, was arrested and detained. In 1965 he was sentenced to life imprisonment. A massive international campaign made him a world-renowned politician, and from 1986 he began discussions on liberation and democracy with the government. In 1990 he was released after 28 years in prison. Mandela stood for peace. A role that he has become world famous for. He forgave his enemies and himself. He had, to a certain extent, worked with himself, thus making the impossible, possible. All the odds were against him, and, many times, it must have seemed hard for him. However, he did not give up hope or faith in peace. This potential, this huge inner “moreness”, willpower, determination, strong faith and strength in personality and integrity is in all of us. However, only a few can exhibit it because it requires so much energy and we must understand what it means to serve, without becoming servants.
Mandela fully accepted the circumstances and found possible solutions to move forward against all the odds. He created and brought these circumstances to his supporters, as well as his enemies, for the cause he stood for: peace. The training at this level is primarily about how to get into the flow and humbly receive. In the 5th position you take 100% responsibility for who you are, your abilities, skills, and talents. Daily training and learning take place through all the people you meet on your way. You constantly work on your humility and you are prepared to learn from all the people you meet on this path, through your experiences, mistakes, and successes.
Many struggles to achieve this, until they understand that it’s not about fighting but about receiving. It is, to some extent, about daring to let go of some self-control in order to receive more. To let yourself go with the flow, be present and in the presence of both yourself and others. It requires that you totally accept the world as it is and, at the same time, identify with what role you want to fill, in order to create something better in this world. The complexity is dealt with here. The paradoxes. You see injustice and fairness as different views of the world, more than fighting with whatever needs to be fought. Here you look at yourself with humbleness, like a human being who both can, but nevertheless cannot, do anything alone. I myself have come to the conclusion that the work required for development from the 4th to the 5th position, is for people who cannot stop because it almost becomes a calling for them. They know it’s hard. They are willing to pay the price (and there may be many), of being slowly put through both bitter and sweet experiences. I call it being refined. We are being refined to become sharp knives, but it hurts to be refined! Like feeling rough sandpaper on your back. However, no matter how bad the pain, one cannot stop. It is an inner driving force that seems so strong inside, that if you try to stop it, it will pop up through external resistance. This reflects on the inner resistance that is present in the struggle against yourself. Only when you are able to stop the struggle against yourself and fight for yourself, in other words what you believe in, what your opinions are and what you want to do for the world, will you see yourself with real humility and live according to the motto, “ability is entrusted”. You assume responsibility for what you are born with, what you are capable of and what feels so right inside, that you cannot stop. Here, the authenticity, integrity and personal radiance grows and the charisma of being a leader increase significantly. It will be more than what you do. It will become who you are, in everything that you do. 5th position leaders are at ease with themselves. It does not mean that they are invincible or invulnerable. Actually, it is the opposite. They allow themselves to be affected by events and are not afraid to exhibit their own vulnerability. This is because they know they can inspire others. They are brave. They dare to be human. They take chances and know the risks if they open up, and they just want to get the best out of everyone they meet along the way. They are loving, self-loving and driven by great love or passion, if you will, in virtually everything that they encounter. To imply that they are engaging is an understatement. They are passionate. As with all other positions, it is important to remember that there are many different personalities and stages of personal development steps for each position. You do not have to be a president or a well-known CEO or NGO to be a 5th position leader. If you have just “landed” in the 5th position, there may be “a distance up” to others in the same position who have worked there much longer, and the mission that one follows may have many outcomes. 5th position leaders have the potential to truly change the world. They have a huge impact on the people they surround themselves with, regardless of the number. They are, to some extent, an inspirational source for all who are interested in leadership, and who would like to become better in leadership. They can motivate and inspire, and they have an energy level that many envies. The world cannot get enough of such people and nobody is born as a 5th position leader. It takes thousands of hours of training to get there and then the rest of your life to keep improving. Thus, it is possible for most of us, if we want it and are willing to pay the price. However, it takes responsibility, hard work, willpower, and self-sacrifice. A 5th position leader cannot rest on his/her laurels. There is so much they want to achieve in the world, that they almost do not allow themselves any kind of rest. Not like stress or pressure, but driven by this inner fire, this passion or calling to make things succeed. To become a 5th position leader, you need to invest in yourself and focus on awareness development. Use your network and your curiosity to acquire more knowledge. Follow what immediately seems interesting to you and where you think you can learn something as a leader. Let me just conclude that I am talking about Leadership, more than Management. Become a leader. It is a gradual process, where you can also find inspiration from the outside, and then start working on it inside yourself through your daily life and daily activities.
POSITION NO. 6: YOURSELF, SEEN WITH ENLIGHTENED CONSCIOUSNESS
There are not many living people in the world at this position, and when we meet them, we are drawn to them. They make a difference just by being present. We often exalt them through different religious beliefs because we cannot explain in words what they are and what they can do. We can feel them and feel their energy but, basically, we do not understand them. We are at a different stage of development, feeling at the same time hugely drawn by their vitality. Remember, they are just human beings, and the potential to reach the same development stage basically lives in all of us. Be inspired to develop yourself and find the own motivational factors which can help you develop your personality. I myself have not met, for example, Mata Amritanandamayi, known as Amma from India, but the work she has done could well lead to a 6th position leader’s work. Amma means mother and she has been given this nickname for her selfless love and compassion to all human beings. Throughout her life Amma has embraced, and therefore comforted, more than 34 million people. They have felt inspired, elevated, and transformed through her arms, her spiritual wisdom and her work within global charity organizations. Amma says that when we get the energy from true love, everything is effortless, and she states herself that her religion is love. The training at this level is primarily about how you use your Being/your consciousness in everything. Even though there are many of us who will not become 6th position leaders, you should never be afraid to see the great light, the great potential in yourself. If you have doubts that what you believe in makes sense, how will you make other people believe in you and have confidence in you? How can you ask others to trust you if you do not even believe it yourself? It’s not about having to do everything ourselves or what we are physically capable of. When we work to move up from the 5th position, we break with physics and open a universe of possibilities. We train and help each other in order that those people, who have a great potential in themselves, can utilize others to develop further. We all have a shared responsibility to get the best out of ourselves. It is not only our children that are our future. It is the sum of all of us, the sum of our common potential that creates our future. Thus, we are also obliged to use the abilities we have and to help others develop their skills. This is regardless of organizational standing, age, sex and other physical conditions.6th position leaders must often be experienced before we can believe in them. They must be felt, sensed. It’s not enough to hear about them, because our inner mistrust overshadows our imagination. Some become almost deeply religious at a physical meeting and, perhaps, that is why so many people do not dare to meet them. They are afraid to lose control of themselves. They say on the one hand that they do not believe in these leaders, and on the other hand they see them with this exudence of great power. They are actually afraid of them.6th position leaders are not domineering people with power. They are highly enlightened people who have so much depth and insight into people and themselves, that they almost seem transparent. It’s as though they have no physical needs themselves. They have no worries and rest in a total acceptance of all that is happening in the world. These leaders do not perform/act in the world like we do. Where 5th position leaders can be directly measured on their results in all that they do, then 6th position leaders are their diametric opposites. This is because they do virtually nothing, and yet they achieve “results”. Not physical results, but the human or psychological, transforming results through personal development. 6th position leaders simply have a different energy frequency. They vibrate in pure energy, and it is through their vibrations that they can transform other people. We can all experience glimpses of being able to do it ourselves, but it’s not quite the same as resting in this frequency. To be present in this frequency. They therefore seem superhuman, and that is what they are, in their own way. They are more human than others, so to speak, but despite everything, they are also human beings. I cannot say much about what it takes to go from the 5th to the 6th position, and maybe it also requires some kind of inner revelation. However, these 6th position leaders do exist, so it is not just something I imagine. Yes, they are rare, but nevertheless alive in the world we know today. The interest in meeting them is therefore usually very personal too. Some even choose to completely take a break in their lives to follow them, and to be helpers or servants. It is a great proposition, and then you do not doubt your belief in this person, this type of leader. It is not fanatical, but a pure and undisputed love. It is important here to emphasize that a 6th position leader never requires others to follow them. This is because they themselves are 100% loving, thus giving undefiled love to others with no pre-conditions or expectations. Under no circumstances am I speaking about the self-proclaimed gurus who are missionaries bringing people with them. Some of these people are often only 3rd position leaders because they are not guided by pure love but by selfishness. It may also seem very alluring and very charismatic to many, but it is another form of charisma I am talking about here. It must not be confused with the charisma; a manipulative 3rd position leader is able to exhibit. 6th position leaders do not see themselves as the saviours of the world. They are not on a mission. They are just themselves. Of course, they speak with a wisdom and understanding and when they see you, it’s as if they see through you, beyond you, and it will touch you deep in your soul.
POSITION NO. 7: YOURSELF, SEEN WITH ENLIGHTENED HUMANITY
Presently, I do not think that there are people who are alive and are 7th position leaders. We know people, like Jesus and Buddha, who historically lived, if we believe in all the sources that have documented their existence as living people.
It is not about religion. For example, you may or may not believe in Jesus as the son of God and you may or may not believe in God. However, it has nothing to do with the fact that there are people who have been so significant in their leadership that they have changed the world, influencing lots of people far beyond their short life on Earth. Nevertheless, they can, if anything, be our source of inspiration to get the best in leadership from ourselves.
Within Spiritual Science, there is a belief that, as humans, we develop to become “real people.” Martinus, a Dane from a small city called Sindal in North Jutland, a part of Denmark, who has written what he calls the Third Testament, points to the Conscious Evolution. He states that we as humans, within approximately 3,000 years, will develop into The Real People, created in God’s image as we were meant to be.
Whether you believe in this or not, as such, it is unimportant in relation to this model. I just do not have the imagination to envisage even higher stages of development than what a human being, like Jesus, was able to do. However, I am completely convinced that we all have the potential to become like Jesus in our work. I do not know how, in addition to the fact that it must require an unbelievably amount of thought and action every day. However, we need some role models that we can look up to, be inspired by and whom we can therefore learn from. People like Jesus can help show us the way, and perhaps make it a little easier to move forward. No matter what, we each must go our own way. From the 1st position to as far as we can reach. The training at this level is primarily about how to handle your full potential, in practice. Why does it make sense to work on the basis of 7 leadership positions? Could we not just stop at the 6th position? I believe that we need good leadership role models and I think that that is especially what the 7th position leaders represent. They may seem unreachable in themselves, but are, to some extent, setting a course. This allows us to each map our own prognoses, goals, and action plans to get as far as possible in that direction. The journey is the goal in itself and we create the path that we move along. It is completely free for you to choose whether you select a living person, that you have met or heard about, as your leadership role model. Alternatively, you can choose an historical non-living person. The 7th level of leadership and the description of the different positions is just a method of identifying the types. It allows you to recognize at which level you are on, so that you can better understand where you can progress to and what you can benefit from, through increased awareness of training. There are no magic recipes for great leadership or personal development, only guidelines and metaphors that can inspire you. Therefore, I hope that this model can be a helpful tool for you on your journey. The model is also a symbol of a spiritual journey, a Kundalini snake*), a primeval force, that can rise the backbone and out through the crown’s chakra, which is just above your head. It is an energy that rises and transforms everything in its path. The term kundalini is used to refer to the vital force or energy that we all hold within us. Often called the “sleeping goddess” or “serpent power”, it is represented as a serpent coiled around the first chakra or root chakra at the base of the spine. Imagine the chakra system as existing on a single electrical circuit that runs lengthwise up the spine with lights at the location of each of the chakras. A profound and revolutionary transformation process, both personally, socially, and energetically, where the goal of the process is awareness, insight and integration between the body, psyche and spirit. It starts at the 1st position and then winds through the other positions.
Common to all personal development is that it is often ourselves that create the limitations. We become scared. We begin to have doubts. We use so-called plausible excuses, namely, those we believe in when sharing them with other people. We also use all sorts of reasons for not working on developing our consciousness. Really, it is easy. It is actually incredibly simple and straightforward, and therefore not difficult. On the other hand, it feels incredibly difficult. We need to make a big effort, use energy, focus, and live through a sea of emotions and experiences. Some are painful and can make us feel lost in an inner fog, where there is no way out. We give up when we do not think we have a firm goal to strive for, instead of diving into it, keeping up with the flow inside and listening more to our inner selves. Allow yourself to grow as a person. Allow yourself to become the best possible version of yourself. If you are hesitating, then ask yourself this:
i. What are your excuses?
ii. What do your excuses consist of?
iii. Why are you hesitating?
These are the questions and answers that only you alone can take responsibility for.
Often, I have also provoked some leaders by saying that they should stop continually getting smarter, to prove how proficient, they are and to gain recognition from others, and instead start to show who they really are.Thus, they themselves become wiser and not “just clever” or “skilled”. We have an expression here in Denmark, which states that there is a difference between being able to calculate something and to figure it out. Who says that we need all the skills to provide good leadership?
As leaders, we must also be strategic and tactical. The difference is the intention behind it; if you are ruled by selfless love or your own interests, be it greed, desire, and the like. To cleanse oneself innermost and replace these forces with pure love, is a sizable and slow process. However, it benefits everyone, and ultimately it will make the greatest difference in the world.
i. What difference do you want to make?
ii. What impression do you want to leave in this world?
iii. What do you wish to be remembered for?
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath
Covid-19 had really hit the economies around the world harder than expected. Worldwide 400 million jobs have been lost in the second quarter of 2020 after a sharp 14% drop-in global working hours during the period compared to 10.7% drop or 305 million jobs estimated in May, the International Labour Organisation said. According to the ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the world of work: 5th Edition , there was a 14% drop in global working hours during the second quarter of 2020, equivalent to the loss of 400 million full-time jobs (based on a 48-hour working week). This is a sharp increase on the previous Monitor’s estimate (issued on May 27), of a 10.7% drop (305 million jobs). According to ILO, the new figures reflect the worsening situation in many regions over the past weeks, especially in developing economies. Regionally, working time losses for the second quarter were Americas (18.3%), Europe and Central Asia (13.9%), Asia and the Pacific (13.5%), Arab states (13.2%) and Africa (12.1%). The ILO stresses that the long-term outcome or recovery from the pandemic will depend on its future trajectory and government policy choices. The ILO baseline model projects a decrease in working hours of 4.9% (equivalent to 140 million full-time jobs) compared to fourth quarter of 2019 while the pessimistic scenario assumes a fall in working hours of 11.9% (340 million full-time jobs) and the optimistic scenario with the exceptionally fast recovery, the global loss of working hours would fall to 1.2% which is equivalent to 34 million full-time jobs.
According to ILO, women workers have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic, creating a risk that some of the modest progress on gender equality made in recent decades will be lost, and that work-related gender inequalities will be exacerbated.
Many have been laid off and those who are working have surrendered to heavy pay cuts. Going to office in pandemic times is risky affair therefore, many have decided to sit back and relax while doing some work from home.
You can earn money from the internet in many ways. Notable among these are as follows:
1. Social Media Moderators: If you have basic social media skills and good people skills, this is an easy gig and usually comes with flexible hours. Available wherever you are in the world. Beyond social media, moderators are also needed to monitor comments and questions on blogs, forums, and chat rooms. The services that hire remote moderators are as follows:
a. The Social Element
b. Crisp Thinking
d. Mod Squad
2. Focus Groups: Focus groups are different from surveys in that they are much more in-depth, often require in-person or at least phone/webcam participation and as a result, also pay much better. Here is a list of some reputable market research companies with active focus groups:
b. 20/20 Research
e. Brand Institute
f. Nichols Research
g. Alder Weiner Research
h. Atkins Research Global
3. Microtasking: Microtask platforms connect companies who need small tasks completed so-called” Short Task”-with remote freelance workers who can perform them whenever they have some free time. Pay is not great, but they are easy to do on the side, even on a lunch break and are sometimes quite fun. These are the best-known platforms:
a. Amazon Mechanical Turk
b. Figure Eight
e. Field Agent
4. Test Websites and Apps: Website or App testing is an easy way to make some extra money. No special skill is required. You just need a computer or smartphone with an in-built microphone, and you are good to go. The process is simple: You signup, take a short test and answer a few questions. That way the platforms can match you with the required target audience for each test. Here are some of the well-known options:
a. User testing
f. What UsersDo
5. Virtual Chat Agent: Chat support positions are extremely popular, so competition is high. You need fast typing skills and excellent grammar, punctuation, and spelling. The following companies offer chat support positions:
b. The Chat Shop
6. Simple Online Research: Without special expertise, you can earn extra cash with basic research gigs. Some notable among them are:
a. Hobby Jam
b. IT-Boss Research
c. JBS Court Research Services
7. Paid Surveys: Paid surveys will not replace a full-time job but can be nice extra income stream-and fun to do. Most surveys are paid with either gift cards to top retailers or “PayPal cash”, meaning your earnings will be sent to your PayPal account. Here are some of the better-known survey companies:
a. Vindale Research
d. Opinion Outpost
f. American Consumer Opinion
h. One opinion
8. Data Entry: Data Entry is offered on micro tasking platforms, so there is some overlap, but here are a few companies that are more specialized on it. The notable companies that offer these services are:
a. The Smart Crowd
c. Cass Information Systems
9. Movie Captioner & Transcriptions: “Captions” are the black subtitles at the bottom of your TV screen that come on when you mute the sound. Someone obviously needs to write them and if you are a fast and accurate typist, this could be you.
10. Transcriptions: Transcriptions falls into three different groups: General Transcription, Legal Transcription and Medical Transcription. You obviously need fast, accurate typing skills and a fast, reliable internet connection. In addition, Express Scribe Software can help make the transcriptions process a lot faster and easier and eliminate the use of mouse.
The following companies hire newbies with no experience though they will usually do an evaluation test. The list of the companies are as follows:
e. Accutran Global
f. Casting Words
j. Hollywood Transcriptions
11. Proofreading: If you have excellent grammar and punctuation, and an eye for detail, you start a proofreading career by offering your services to self-publishing authors, which is a booming industry. The following sites work with freelancer proof-readers:
d. Proofreading Services
12. Virtual Assistant: Becoming a “Virtual Assistant (VA)” is one of the easiest entries into the world of home-based jobs and business options, because almost any skill can be monetized as a VA.
To get started, you can apply to any of the below agencies to get placed on current jobs:
a. Fancy Hands
b. Virtual Gal Friday
c. VA Sumo
e. StartUps Co.
f. 99 Dollar Social
13. Virtual Expert: If you can prove your expertise in a specific area, you can work for several online platforms answering customer questions and completing research assignments. A few notable among them are as follows:
a. Ask Wonder
b. Just Answer
14. Virtual Consultant: Freelance consulting gigs can be highly lucrative, and the below platforms connect virtual experts with companies around the world. A few notable among them are as follows:
a. On Frontiers
c. Internal Consulting
15. Virtual Teacher: Whatever expertise you have, you can now teach it online to almost anyone in the world courtesy of the internet. The following allow you to list yourself, set your own schedule and fees, and start earning money as a virtual teacher. The following will be able to help:
16. Translation: If you are fluent in another language-in, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Russian or Chinese-you will find plenty of translator gigs. Jobs could be in Customer service, transcriptions or working as an interpreter. Here is a list of translation agencies:
b. Argos Multilingual
d. Tele Language
17. Virtual Academic Tutor: Remote academic tutoring and test prep gigs are available at the following companies, but they require college degree and teaching certifications:
e. Study Pool
f. Yup Tutoring
18. Academic Test Scorer: Another goodie you can do via courtesy of the internet, but it requires college degree for consideration. You can apply to these companies:
c. Measurement Inc
19. Virtual English Tutor: Staying with the English as a 2nd Language theme, you can also teach English online. It is an industry that has exploded over the last few years, especially based in China. Here are the best-known companies to apply:
20. Pro Virtual Researcher: There are many ways to get paid for online research, both for simple tasks that only take a few minutes to complete all the way up to professional level research assignments.
a. First Quarter Finance
D. Ask Wonder
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath
Investing in the Pharma sector during these pandemic times is not a bad idea. The pharma industry is at the forefront of the battle against COVID-19 and has responded to this global challenge by ensuring the availability of medicines despite supply chain disruptions, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Chairman Israel Makov said on Thursday, Aug 27, 2020. Clinical trials are being conducted to test the effectiveness of many existing medicines in treating symptoms of COVID-19, he added while addressing the annual general meeting (AGM) of the company. Some of the global pharmaceutical companies, as well as few Indian firms, have also initiated clinical trials for the development of a COVID-19 vaccine, Makov said. The company is also leveraging IT technology tools to ensure business continuity and to facilitate work-from-home for many employees, Makov said.
The healthcare index hit a record high on Friday led by a rally in sector majors Lupin, Dr Reddy’s Laboratories and Cipla on the back of positive news flow. The sector will remain a market favourite due to earnings visibility, which does not exist for most sectors currently because of the pandemic. Analysts said there is potential for earnings to double in the next five years. The BSE Healthcare index surged 3.5% to 20,404.76; Natco Pharma was the top gainer with a 14% jump. Dr Reddy’s was the second-best performer, ending up 10% at 5,326.70 after scaling an all-time high during the day as the company settled patent litigation for Revlimid with Celgene. This is a boost for the company as Revlimid generic cash flows should be significant for the company at over $700 million, according to analysts.
Lupin’s shares jumped 4.6% and those of Cipla gained over 7% after Perrigo announced a voluntary recall of its albuterol sulphate inhalation aerosols in the US on concerns that some units may not dispense properly due to clogging issues. Lupin and Cipla, which are competitors of Perrigo in the $850 million-$900 million US albuterol sulfate market, could potentially get a 4-6% boost in earnings per share due to this opportunity, according to foreign brokerage Macquarie. The rally in pharma stocks brought the total gain in BSE Healthcare to 86.4%, from its 2020 low of 10,947.99 to a close of 20,404.76 on Friday. The Sensex, which hit a 2020 low of 25,638.9 on March 24, has gained 51% since then to close at 38,845.82 on Friday, Sep 19, 2020. From March 24, when the benchmark hit a 2020 low, pharma stocks have surged as much as 516%. Aarti Drugs has taken the lead among pharma stocks followed by IOL Chemicals, Marksans Pharma, Laurus Labs, Neuland Laboratories, Jubilant Life Sciences and Aurobindo Pharma, which gained 154-435%.
Now I come to your question. Invex searches for and carefully selects assets with high investment potential and stable long-term returns. Our platform allows you to collectively invest in pharmaceutical companies and medical technology start-up’s that were previously only available to professional market players. This format allows you to divide the number of attachments between participants. At the same time, the size of our investment is from 300 thousand to several million. The security level remains high, and the costs associated with selecting and verifying an asset are borne by us. Invex takes all the work with brokers, utilities, and government agencies, which removes all the risks associated with the settlement of conflicts within the object from the investor. Thus, the investor only must choose a tariff, choose the amount to invest, sign a contract and receive payments. Company is located in UNITED KINGDOM.
Jurgen Schwartz, Founder and President of Invex says, “Our goal is the success of our clients and the development of the financial sector in all countries where the brand is represented. This is why we keep our services up to date and introduce innovative products.
“The reason for the creation of our holding was the existing problem of the modern market of investments in the medical sphere: investments require large one-time expenses, and the selection and management of assets takes a long time. In addition, this type of investment requires extensive knowledge in this area, which is possessed by a rather narrow circle of the population.
Moreover, the growth that was observed in the pharmaceutical market over the last decade opens endless opportunities for investors all over the world.”
The answer to your question is yes, the company does exist and I do believe you must gather more information about the company by visiting their Facebook account: https://www.facebook.com/invexlab/about/?ref=page_internal
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath
The term seed capital refers to the type of financing used in the formation of a start-up. Funding is provided by private investors—usually in exchange for an equity stake in the company or for a share in the profits of a product. Much of the seed capital a company raises may come from sources close to its founders including family, friends, and other acquaintances. Obtaining seed capital is the first of four funding stages required for a start-up to become an established business. A company that is first starting out may have limited access to funding and other sources. Banks and other investors may be reluctant to invest because it has no history or established track record, or any measure of success. Many start-up executives often turn to people they know for initial investments—family and friends. This financing is referred to as seed capital.
Seed capital—also called seed money or seed financing—is referred to as such because it is money raised by a business in its infancy or early stages. It does not have to be a large amount of money. Because it comes from personal sources, it is often a relatively modest sum. This money generally covers only the essentials a start-up needs such as a business plan and initial operating expenses—rent, equipment, payroll, insurance, and/or research and development costs (R&D).
The primary goal at this point is to attract more financing. This means catching the interest of venture capitalists and/or banks. Neither is inclined to invest large sums of money in a new idea that exists only on paper unless it comes from a successful serial entrepreneur.
A start-up normally must move through four distinct phases of investment before it is truly established—seed capital, venture capital, mezzanine funding, and an initial public offering (IPO). As mentioned above, seed capital tends to be just enough to help a start-up achieve its initial goals. If the company is successful in the initial phase, it may catch the interest of venture capitalists. These investors are likely to invest heavily in the company before it moves further. So-called mezzanine financing is sometimes necessary to support a company into its introductory phase. This is generally available only to businesses with a track record—even then at a high rate of interest. The final stage is when early investors get their payday. When a young company goes public with its IPO, it raises sufficient capital to keep growing and expanding.
Seed Capital vs. Angel Investing: Professional angel investors sometimes provide seed money either through a loan or in return for equity in the future company. These investors are generally high-net-worth individuals (HNWIs) and may come from the personal network of a start-up’s founder(s). Angel investors often enjoy a hands-on role in helping develop a company from scratch. If the angel investor contributes less than $1 million, the money is usually in the form of a loan. For the entrepreneur, this can solve the problem of attracting sufficient seed money, given the reluctance of financial institutions and even venture capitalists to take on considerable risk. When contributing more than $1 million, an angel investor typically prefers seed equity and becomes a co-owner of the start-up and the holder of preferred stock with voting rights.
Seed Capital vs. Venture Capital: Although seed capital and venture capital are often used as synonyms, they tend to overlap. Seed capital is generally used to develop a business idea to the point that it can be presented effectively to venture capital firms that have large amounts of money to invest. If venture capital firms like the idea, they generally get a stake in the new venture in return for investing in its development.
Venture capitalists provide the lion's share of the money needed to start a new business. It is a considerable investment, paying for product development, market research, and prototype production. Most start-ups at this stage have offices, staff, and consultants, even though they may have no actual product.
Once we have understood what seed capital has let us now move on to how to invest in a venture.
These are as follows:
1. Business Revenue: One of the best ways to raise seed capital is by generating revenue through the start-up being built. In recent times, this method has gained prominence as it does not involve the complexity of seeking external funding or diluting stake. And it also proves that there is demand for the product in the market. A variation of this is crowdfunding, where the product is showcased to potential investors through stages of development. With more than 500 crowdfunding platforms currently active, this has become one of the most popular avenues of seed funding.
2. Personal Savings or Bootstrapping: Founders may put in their personal wealth and savings as seed funding. Also known as bootstrapping, this brings extra financial pressure but there is no pressure on founders to return borrowed money.
3. Corporate Seed Funds: Usually, mega-corporations and tech giants are looking for a way to invest in new innovation that they may spot in the market. This source of funding brings big visibility for the start-up brand and is usually an early indication of an acquisition in the future. Tech giants such as Apple, Google, and Intel back start-ups regularly with seed money. GV is the investment arm of Alphabet (Google’s parent company), while Intel Capital is chipmaker Intel’s dedicated division for start-up investments.
4. Incubators: Incubators generally provide small seed investments and offer services such as office space or management training for start-ups that are at an exceedingly early or idea stage. Many incubation programmes do not take equity from the start-up but do offer support beyond just funding. Most importantly, incubators help shape the idea and help solidify the market-fit for start-up products and services.
5. Accelerators: Unlike incubators, accelerators work with start-ups in scaling up their business rather than backing and nurturing early-stage innovation. Accelerators also back start-ups through small seed investments along with professional services, networking opportunities, mentoring and workspace.
6. International Philanthropic Impact Investors: When setting up a business that is dedicated to addressing a social issue, one of the main questions is how to get seed funding for such a start-up. This is where start-ups could approach international philanthropic impact investors, who act as seed investors for start-ups with social impact. One of the major advantages in this class of investors is that although the foundations are large, the expectations are fewer than VCs or institutional investors, as this is a source of philanthropy for the investor and not a business deal per se.
7. Micro VCs: Apart from the above listed options, micro VCs, or micro venture capital firms, have garnered quite a lot of attention in recent times. These firms are into an investment of institutional money when the start-up is in the seed stage itself.
8. Angel Funds: Sometimes, investors come together to form angel networks or groups where they each invest small amounts in the idea or the company during the early stage financing round. The major angel networks in the market currently are AngelList, Indian Angel Network, Lead Angels, as well as angel networks for each major start-up hub in India.
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath
We all are born different, with different mind set and though patterns. It is really difficult to say which soft skills will exactly help you out, it depends one you as to which one suits you, I can provide you a deep insight into the world of soft skills and it is for you to decide, which one would you choose. Soft skills are the personal character traits or qualities each of us has. They make us who we are, generally encompassing our attitudes, habits and how we interact with other people. They refer to abilities that make people better employees and open doors for many opportunities that are not directly related to the subject matter of their jobs. In other words, soft skills refer to a person’s ability to relate to others, to get him/her and others organised, to communicate in written, spoken, or other forms.
Soft skills have been defined by the World Health Organisation as follows: “These are the abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal with the demands and challenges of everyday life.”
UNICEF defines these skills (called life skills) as: “A behaviour change or behaviour development approach designed to address a balance of three areas: knowledge, attitude and skills.”
Soft skills include psycho-social abilities and interpersonal skills that help people take decisions, solve problems, think critically, communicate effectively, build healthy relationships, demonstrate qualities of leadership and team building, manage time effectively, and cope with the stress and strain of life in a healthy and productive manner.
Essentially, there are two kinds of skills – those related to thinking called ‘thinking skills’ and skills related to dealing with others called ‘social skills.’ While thinking skills relate to the personal level, social skills include interpersonal skills. It is the combination of these two types of skills that are needed for achieving behaviour change and negotiating effectively.
NEED FOR SOFT SKILLS: Soft skills allow us to use our technical skills and knowledge effectively and efficiently. They improve the way we interact with our bosses, co-workers, and customers/clients. They permit us to get our work done on time. They influence how we feel about our jobs and how others perceive us. Consequently, the demand for and reliance on soft skills is on the increase due to constant change in the work environment, customer-driven market, information-based technology and globalization. The development of soft skills in this market is important as there is intense competition for many available positions. The ability to develop and use soft skills can make the difference between the achiever and the non-achiever. Earlier the focus of management was on ‘hard’ skills. The emphasis was on the technical skills necessary to perform effectively. These skills tended to be more closely related to the actual task being performed. But now every single occupation you can think of demands that you have specific character traits. Moreover, an important thing to note is that soft skills are transferable between occupations. While you may have to go back to school to learn new technical skills if you change careers, you can always take your soft skills with you since they are valued in a variety of fields. Today, employers want people with efficient soft skills. These are key skills to effective performance across all job categories. As the world has changed, and the nature of work has changed, the skill set required of managers and other executives has changed. Today’s business is all about people. It is about communication, relationships and about presenting yourself, your company, and your ideas in the most positive and impactful way. Many business people like to think that success is based on logical, rational thoughts and acts, but it is also to be remembered that the human element is as important as the skills mentioned above. That is why a strong soft skills set is considered to be particularly important.
Let us look at the Soft Skills one by one and understand them:
1. Personality Development: Personality is the way we look, feel, and behave. It is the totality of a person’s being –not merely the external appearance but also various other traits.
Personality includes the following:
1. Character traits:
i. Integrity: a person’s honesty in dealing with others, loyalty to one’s beliefs, value systems etc.
ii. Acceptance: by others who come into contact with a person and recognizing and accepting them as a whole.
iii. Discipline: refers to a person’s disciplined approach to life and work.
iv. Dedication: refers to the commitment a person shows towards the achievement of individual as well as group goals.
v. Behavioural traits:
vi. Interpersonal skills: the way a person develops and sustains interpersonal relations with all those he/she has dealings with – bosses, co-workers, fellow students, customers/clients, suppliers, private and government organisations.
vii. Communication skills: refer to the effective way a person communicates with others through various channels – writing, speaking, listening, and using positive body language.
viii. Leadership qualities: refer to the qualities which help a person behave in a leadership position – getting work done willingly, exercising participative leadership style, and be a role model by setting example.
ix. Team management: refers to the effectiveness with which a person demonstrates ability to build and manage team in order to achieve the desired goals and objectives.
x. Stress management: the quality of keeping cool in stressful circumstances, identifying the factors causing stress, and finding solutions to reduce – if not eliminate altogether –the stressors.
i. Positive attitude: be able to have a positive attitude even in the face of difficulties and impossible situations, and be willing to try out ideas in the face of obstacles and hardships.
ii. Win/Win situation: be able to negotiate and bring around the other person to an acceptable solution to a problem – thus creating a win/win situation for both the parties.
iii. Keep the end in mind: be able to focus on the ultimate end (goal) in mind bypassing the various problems that may crop up on the way.
iv. Synergize: be able to combine or work together in order to be more effective, or to make things or people do this.
There are several types of personality people have. Some of these are:
i. Perfectionists: They are never satisfied till they achieve perfection. Sometimes people forget that there is nothing which can be absolutely ‘perfect’; it may be rather very close to the idea of being perfect. Such people are usually a source of stress for themselves as well as for others working with them. However, such people cannot be categorically criticized for aiming at total perfection as they tend to achieve excellent results.
ii. Helpers: They are always willing to help others in times of need – with guidance, advice, resources etc.
iii. Romantics: They are sometimes called dreamers and think of innovative ideas which sometimes people think are impractical. But sometimes the craziest idea can lead to a wonderful new design, product, or service. Quite often the world moves on the shoulders of dreamers. If we cannot dream, we can’t think, we can’t imagine, we may not be able to act on some new idea.
iv. Achievers: These are the people who are determined to achieve what they have planned for. They put all their efforts in performing to their utmost capacity, show dedication to the task in hand, and ultimately reach their goal. It is the expected sense of achievement that propels such people.
v. Asserters: These people neither remain passive nor aggressive in any situation. They rather assert their rights, respect the rights of others, and have the innate ability to convince others and thus elicit cooperation from all.
vi. Questioners: They are ‘Doubting Toms.’ They question everybody’s opinion, behaviour, ideas, way of working etc., and quite often are dissatisfied with the outcome. Others quite often misunderstand such people and consider them to be obstacles to progress.
vii. Adventurers: They are ever ready to take risks in order to reach their goal. No risk is too big for them, and so they believe in experimentation with an adventurous spirit.
viii. Observers: There are some who are great observers of people and things around them. They visibly – or surreptitiously sometimes – observe people, events, things, environment etc., and are often a source of important information which others might not have noticed. Quite often such people are good at analysing things, events, people etc.
ix. Peacemakers: They avoid confrontational situations, and always take initiative in making peace with different parties who may be at loggerheads with each other.
Personality development is gaining more and more importance because it enables people to create a good impression about themselves on others. It helps them to build and develop relationships, helps in their career growth. Some people have particularly charismatic persona, while others are strong listeners and advice-givers. It is important to have the ability to build on and develop strengths, while at the same time acknowledging and working to improve on the weak points in your personality. After all, personality development is a tool that helps you realise your capabilities and your strengths making you a stronger, a happier and a successful person.
2. Communication Skills: All of us use communication skills when we use them at home with our family members, at school or college with our classmates and teachers, in the workplace with our bosses and colleagues, on our computers when we answer emails, and on the telephone when we order pizza. In fact, communication is the lifeblood of social as well business world. Communication is the process by which we give, receive or exchange information with others. Communication means interacting with others:
1. To promote understanding.
2. To achieve a result of some kind.
3. To pass information to another person so that they can act.
It can involve speaking, listening, or writing. This information does not necessarily need to be hard facts. Sometimes just a shrug of the shoulder can act as our means of communication.
KEY ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION:
There are three key elements in the communication process. They are the following:
i. You: You bring professional experience, education, and training to the communication process. How you communicate shows you.
ii. Your audience: In order to be an effective communicator, you need to know who your audience is. You need different means, content, and language with different categories of people.
iii. Your message: The message element is equally important. What do you want to say? What is the best way to communicate your message? All messages should contain who, what, when, where, why and how (as appropriate to the message).
Effective messages have the following characteristics:
1. Clear: Communication should be clear and self-explanatory about why it has been transmitted.
2. Complete: The information given should be complete and should not have any scope for questions.
3. Correct: The information provided should be correct and based on facts. Facts should be given rather than impressions.
4. Save reader’s time: Written communication should be such that the reader saves time in understanding the message.
5. Create goodwill: The pleasant, correct and clear message will result in creating goodwill for the sender of the message.
6. Clarify and condense information: Business messages should frequently use tables, photos or diagrams to clarify or condense information, to explain a process, or to emphasize important information.
7. State precise responsibilities: Business messages are directed to specific audience. Therefore, you must clearly state what is expected of, or what you can do for, that audience.
8. Persuade and recommend: Business messages are frequently given to customers, clients, management, or subordinates to accept the suggestions and recommendations given.
3. Interpersonal Skills: Interpersonal relationship skills are the soft skills or life skills we use every day to interact with other people, both individually and in groups. Interpersonal communication is the process by which people exchange information, feelings, and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages. It is face-to-face communication and is not just what is actually said but how it is said, and the non-verbal messages sent through tone or voice, facial expressions, gestures and other body language. These skills help us to relate in positive ways with the people we interact with. This may mean being able to make and sustain friendly relationships, which can be of great importance to our mental, social, and professional well-being.
Interpersonal relationship needs to be maintained with a wide variety of people, for example:
4. Family members
While dealing with different sets of people, different skills are used as per the situation.
We engage in some form of interpersonal communication on a regular basis. How well we communicate with others is a measure of our interpersonal skills.
We use these skills to:
1. Exchange information.
2. Establish contacts and maintain relationships.
3. Express personal needs and understand the needs of others.
4. Give and receive emotional support.
5. Make decisions and solve problems.
6. Anticipate and predict behaviour; and
7. Influence the attitudes and behaviour of others.
Mainly there are three factors that affect interpersonal relationships:
The following elements of attitude play a vital role in interpersonal relationships:
1. Object-based: We form our attitudes directed towards a person, a group, an event, religion etc. We form specific opinions and behave accordingly.
2. Direction: We could have a positive or a negative approach.
3. Stability: We could be highly stable in our perception or be flexible as per the demands of a particular situation.
4. Motivational properties: In certain circumstances we could be ready to act in a particular way, and act differently in another situation. What motivates us to act in a certain way differs from person to person, and from situation to situation.
5. Learnt behaviour: We are not born with specific attitudes. We learn to have a certain attitude through our experiences with people and environment.
6. Manifestation as behaviour: Our attitudes are manifested in our behaviour. They lead us to behave in a particular fashion as attitude and behaviour are closely linked with each other.
7. Components of attitude: Attitude has three important components:
8. Cognitive: beliefs, value systems.
9. Affective: pleasant or unpleasant feelings, attraction or aversion.
10. Behavioural: actual behaviour in relation to a person or an object – positive or negative.
These three components have to be in harmony with each other. Any inconsistency causes tension and anxiety in all concerned.
Our prejudices (unfair or unreasonable opinions) are crucial in the formation of attitudes:
1. Biased attitude: We prejudge people based on unfair and unreasonable opinion or feeling in respect of religion, race, colour, nationality etc. We do so without having sufficient knowledge and it is based on limited experience.
2. Sources of prejudice:
3. Socialization practices: based on imitation of elders.
4. Personality characteristics: categorizing people as black and white, or being for/against people.
5. Inter-group conflicts: majority vs minority in terms of numbers, hostility or friendliness.
3. STEREOTYPE: We stereotype people, and are unwilling to change our opinion. We do so as follow:
1. Over-generalized beliefs: categorizing individuals and groups on account of pre-conceived notions, e.g. Asians, Jews, politicians.
2. Resistance to change: being adamant and refusing to change.
4. Team Building: Building a team and working with it effectively and harmoniously is quite a daunting task. It is said that: “It is easy to get the players, getting them to play together, that’s the hardest part.” Anyone can get the requisite number of team members (for a football team, for example) but it is another matter to develop it into a cohesive group wherein all the members perform in sync with each other. It requires a lot of effort and skills to transform individual members of a group into a team the members of which act in the interest of the whole team rather than focusing on individual glory or satisfaction.
IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RELATIONS:
A team functions successfully if all the members keep their personal egos aside and maintain actionable human relations. In this context, it is advisable to remember the following:
The 6 most important words:
“I admit I made a mistake.”
The 5 most important words:
“You did a good job.”
The 4 most important words:
“What is your opinion?
The 3 most important words:
“Will you please?”
The 2 most important words:
The 1 most important word:
The least important word:
No group can be banded together in an effective team unless the individuals forego their individual aspirations and work for achieving team goals and objectives.
It is a group of people who come together in order to:
i. Solve a problem.
ii. Meet an objective; or
iii. Tackle an issue.
The interests of individuals merge into the interests of the team wherein there is supremacy of team goals over individual goals. The different members bring in various ideas, discuss together all the pros and cons, and take a collective decision.
It is a fact that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Individuals, who are the parts of the team, bring with them a range of various elements.
When all these elements are put together, they ensure the effective working of a team as a well-knit unit.
An effective team can be built by following these guidelines:
1. Get to know one another: likes, dislikes attitudes, aptitudes, beliefs, aspirations, individual goals.
2. Establish consensus: efforts must be made to ensure that everybody’s viewpoint is discussed but ultimately decisions are taken by consensus.
3. Identify available resources: not only the resources which are readily available but also the ones that can be easily arranged.
4. Establish rules of behaviour: members to demonstrate behaviour that encourages team spirit and respect for each other’s viewpoint.
5. Cooperate: when the team has reached a decision in spite of any individual’s objections, they need to consider it as a team decision and cooperate in performing all those tasks which are required in achieving the team’s objectives.
5. Leadership: An organisation is made up of groups of people. An essential part of management is coordinating the activities of groups and directing the efforts of their members towards the goals and objectives of the organisation. This involves the process of leadership and the choice of an appropriate form of behaviour.
Leadership might be interpreted in simple terms, such as:
a) ‘getting others to follow;’
b) ‘getting people to do things willingly;’ or
c) Interpreted more specifically as the ‘use of authority in decision making.’
We can also say that: “It is interpersonal influence which is exercised in a situation and directed through the communication process towards the attainment of a specified goal”.
Tead (1935) says: “Leadership is that combination of qualities by the possession of which one is able to get something done by others, chiefly because through his influence they become willing to do it.”
Since leadership is an inspirational process, a leader influences long-term changes in attitude. It does not necessarily take place within the hierarchical structure, and many people operate without role definition. Leadership is related to motivation and the process of communication through which one person influences the behaviour of other people. The process of leadership is not separable from the activities of the group. Effective leadership is a two-way process.
Lord Sieff (1991) explains that: “Leadership is vitally important at all levels within the company, from main board to the shop floor. Leadership is the moral and intellectual ability to visualize and work for what is best for the company and its employees…The most vital thing the leader does is to create team spirit around him and near him, not in a schoolboy sense, but in realistic terms of mature adults…To be effective leadership has to be seen, and it is best seen in action.”
A leader may:
1. Be imposed.
2. Be formally appointed.
3. Be chosen informally; or
4. Emerge naturally.
Leadership may be:
1. Attempted leadership: when an individual in the group attempts to exert influence over other members of the group.
2. Successful leadership: when the influence brings about the behaviour and results that were intended by the leader.
3. Effective leadership: when successful leadership results in desirable functional behaviour and the achievement of group goals.
Leadership may also involve:
1. Exercise through greater knowledge, expertise or reputation.
2. Personal qualities or charisma.
3. Manner of exercising authority.
4. Adoption of a particular style of leadership.
Dynamic form: Leadership is a dynamic form of behaviour and there are a number of variables that affect it. According to McGregor, “leadership is not the property of individual, but a complex relationship among these variables.” He has specified the following variables:
1. Characteristics of the leader.
2. Attitudes, needs and other personal characteristics of group members.
3. Nature of the organisation, such as its purpose, its structure, the tasks to be performed.
4. Social, economic, and political environment.
6. Time Management: Effective time management is simply about self-discipline. There is no magic formula, no piece of paper to fill in which will suddenly make you good at managing your time. Everyone has a lot of work to do and not enough time to do it. However, we can all think of people who seem very organised and others who have the same amount of work to do, but the first kind manage to do it in time, and better too. The first lesson to learn about time management is that in the real world of work, things go wrong. Computers break down, files go missing, and problems crop up and so on. These things will always happen and there is really no way of avoiding them. This means developing and using a simple set of time management systems that work for you. Before you start to plan on what and when you spend your time you need to know how much time you have available to you. The way you manage and budget your time is remarkably similar to the way you manage and budget your money. Imagine your salary. At the end of each month you are paid a sum which you know about in advance. You therefore know how much you can afford to spend on things like mortgages, bills, food, clothes etc. If in any given month you receive a particularly large bill you adjust your expenditure accordingly. You may choose not to go for dinner for instance, or not to put money away to save. You can do this because you know exactly what your income and expenditure is.
You also know how much time you have available to you, which is, 60 minutes in an hour, and 24 hours in a day and so on. The amount of time available is static. You also usually know how long you must take to complete any particular task because most tasks have deadlines. So once you know this you can start budgeting your time, just as you would budget your money.
You can manage your time by adhering to the following:
1. What is the purpose of your job?
2. What are you expected to do?
3. What is the time scale for doing it?
4. What do you need to do (which tasks do you need to carry out) in order to achieve that purpose?
Work falls in two categories:
1. Reactive tasks: There are certain tasks for which you have to provide immediate response. There is no time to plan for them.
2. Proactive tasks: These are the tasks about which you know in advance, and so can plan accordingly.
In order to manage your time as per the situation created by reactive or proactive tasks you need to follow the following course of action:
1. You need to know (approximately) what percentage of your working day and week you spend on either proactive or reactive tasks.
2. Plan for the proactive tasks.
3. Leave time for reactive tasks.
4. Never leave things until the last minute. Plan in the time that you intend to spend on a certain job and stick to it.
One of the most common mistakes people make in managing their priorities is that they leave the ‘big’ and important tasks until last while they clear up the ‘little’ jobs. Of course, what normally happens is that they get to the end of the day and realize they have spent the whole day in doing relatively unimportant tasks and facing interruptions, and then feel stressed because they still have to attend to the important jobs.
7. Presentation Skills: Presentation is a method of communicating your ideas and thoughts on a given topic. Doing an academic or business presentation can be a difficult task – particularly when you are doing it for the first time – but once you practise, it will come easily to you. Presentations can be amazingly effective in making your point clear. It may be just an internal presentation – perhaps to your colleagues/classmates, or to your boss or it may be a marketing or technical presentation. Perhaps it may be to a large group.
You must organise yourself well before you can even think of making a presentation:
STEP-1: PLAN YOUR PRESENTATION
When you decide to make a presentation, take care of the following:
a) Subject: You must be thoroughly conversant with the subject of your presentation.
b) Collect information: Collect all the information required – from your knowledge and experience, colleagues/classmates, books and journals, Internet etc.
c) Size and type of audience: You must know in advance who your audience is going to be. You should analyse audience needs beforehand. Answers to these questions will enable you to plan accordingly:
i. Are they your co-workers/classmates?
ii. Or people you don’t know?
iii. What is their level of knowledge of the subject?
iv. How many people will be present?
v. Aids to be used: Decide what aids you will use:
vii. White board and marker?
ix. Just speak?
However, these days almost all presentations are made with the aid of PowerPoint.
STEP-2: PREPARE YOUR PRESENTATION
i. Write the script in points:
iii. Main body – points you want to discuss
iv. Prepare notes on small index card for you to use when making a presentation (if you are not using PowerPoint).
v. Prepare PowerPoint presentation. Do not write paragraphs. Write points only, and click point by point instead of the whole slide. This will help the audience to concentrate on the point you are talking about.
STEP-3: PRACTISE YOUR PRESENTATION:
i. Practise either by yourself or in front of a small audience. You can do so in front of a mirror also if nobody is available.
ii. Check your timing. Quite often you may practise either by yourself or in front of a small audience. You can do so in front of a mirror also if nobody is available.
STEP-4: MAKE YOUR PRESENTATION:
1. Get rid of stage fear.
2. Be confident.
3. Talk normally.
4. Preferably start with a simple and appropriate ice-breaker. Maintain proper and regular eye contact with the audience.
5. Look at the points only. Then speak from memory.
6. Always stand while making a presentation. Sitting presentations lose their effectiveness as the invisible thread of eye contact with the audience is lost.
7. Correct body language is important. Use hand movements and gestures to emphasise your points.
8. Make your presentation interactive. You may elicit information from the participants instead of giving out all of it yourself.
9. You may break the monotony with a small game relevant to the subject of your presentation (depending on the length of your presentation).
10. At the end, ask if there are any questions. Answer them with confidence.
11. Provide your contact details (someone may want to contact you for clarifications).
12. Thank the audience for their patience and participation.
8. Managing Stress: Increasingly you are called on to deal with stressful situations related to work or education. You are often judged on how you perform on these occasions. But how often do you discuss stress? If you are in a demanding job, raising children, planning an event, preparing for an examination or living in a fast-paced environment, this could probably be at least once a week. Stress is derived from the Latin word ‘stringere’ meaning ‘to tighten.’ Through centuries it has meant many different things to different people. In 17th century it was associated with hardship and distress. In 18th and 19th centuries it was associated with Physics and Engineering when people were concerned with metal withstanding stress. Now people talk of stress with reference to mental pressure in performing a certain task or having some kind of situation which is worrying them. However, it has become an inescapable part of modern life, and we can say that:
a) Everyone seems to rush and hurry, with deadlines to meet and targets to achieve ‘yesterday’;
b) It is about pressure and the reaction it produces within you;
c) It can be brought about by external or internal factors – internal factors are harder to deal with;
d) It creates an imbalance between the level of demand placed upon you and your capability of meeting that demand.
You need to recognize what stress is and what causes it. Only then you can learn how to deal with it. You must understand that:
a) Stress is normal, and indeed with no stress we would be dead;
b) Stress is a very individual thing and everyone has very different stress levels;
c) Successful stress management requires you to recognize when you are experiencing stress;
d) We are a like a set of scales with scissors being various weights, and we need to recognize optimum levels in order to maintain a balance.
9. Thinking Skill: Learning does not mean only rote learning which is the memorisation of information based on repetition. Examples of rote learning are the alphabet, rhymes and poems, numbers, multiplication tables, statistical and chemical formulae etc. However, its role is limited to learning of basic facts and figures. In order to pursue higher levels of learning or to move up in your chosen profession, it will be helpful if thinking skills are developed. It will ensure that the learning that takes place will not only be based on real understanding of the subject but will also be of a more lasting nature. It is more so because such learning will be borne out of one’s own conviction. You can improve your thinking skills by understanding specific types of thinking, how they work, and practising to improve your thinking abilities. As you become more conscious about these skills, you become a better learner and a more efficient practitioner of your profession.
FOCUSING SKILLS: These involve paying attention to selected units of information and discarding others that may not be relevant to the situation. This can be achieved by doing the following:
1. Clarify your needs;
2. Sort out discrepancies;
3. Ignore situations that confuse you;
4. Define the problem;
5. Decide the purpose;
6. Think of the direction; and
7. Set goals and objectives.
INFORMATION COLLECTION SKILLS: These involve thinking of the relevant data which is required for further processing. You can do this by following these strategies:
1) Observe around you.
2) Get information using various resources.
3) Spot new information.
4) Question its validity; and
5) Select what is relevant for your purpose.
REMEMBERING SKILLS: This means storing the information that you have collected. You can do this as follows:
1. Store the new information in long-term memory; and
2. Retrieve it from long-term memory when you need to use it.
ORGANISING SKILLS: All the information that you collect must be organised systematically so that you may easily retrieve it when needed. This is like filing your documents in separate folders with clear indication of what each folder contains. You can do this in the following manner:
1) Sort out information having similar and different attributes.
2) Group the information based on their similarities and differences.
3) Label them accordingly; and
4) Put them in sequential order.
ANALYSING SKILLS: This means examining the different parts of information and their inter-relationship. This can be done as follows:
1. Decide the characteristics of various parts.
2. Identify the patterns of relationship between different parts.
3. Identify the main ideas and sub-ideas; and
4. Identify if there are any logical errors and correct them wherever possible.
GENERATING SKILLS: It means producing new ideas. This is how you can do so:
1. Think beyond the available information.
2. Anticipate what could happen; and
3. Explain by adding details and examples.
INTEGRATING SKILLS: This means that after you have collected information and generated new ideas, you have to connect the information in order to fit the different pieces in a logical manner i.e. you have to integrate all the relevant information. For this, you must do the following:
1) Make a summary of all the information by combining it in a precise and understandable statement; and
2) Reorganize the existing information to make way for new information.
EVALUATING SKILLS: This means looking at the quality and logic of the information collected. So you evaluate it in the following manner:
1) Set standards which you would like to have.
2) Set up criteria that you will apply for judging the relevance and validity of information; and
3) Verify the accuracy of information you have collected.
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath
The answer to your question is simple, by defining the problem. Research in general is related to queries and queries arise when we observe some anomaly (or inconsistency). This anomaly can provide the basis for a problem or opportunity. Thus, defining a research problem or opportunity correctly is of major importance in any research. If the problem defined is not exhaustive the research may lead to incorrect or in some cases contrasting findings. In the following discussion we will touch upon the issue of how can correct problem definition be achieved and how it can enhance the chances of making the ‘right’ marketing decision?
The importance of defining a right problem: An old adage says, “A problem well defined is half solved”. Defining a problem in general circumstance is not extremely hard as we keep on identifying right problems. Such as, while driving (Which way to drive? Not to change the lanes suddenly etc.), walking (Walking in a way without hitting any obstacle), eating (Eating food which we are comfortable with, Choice of places to eat, etc.), breathing (yes, even to breath or not to breath is a choice like, while underwater we define correctly that we should not breath without the right gear) and so on.
We can answer such questions easily because every decision has a pattern involved in it. The simplest of decision situation can be characterized by the following condition:
1. A decision maker is operating in a set but dynamic environment in which there is a problem. (underwater environment and breathing as a problem)
2. There are at least two courses of action to choose from. (breath or not to breath)
3. Any of the choices made regarding the course of action will lead to two possible outcomes of that choice and the decision maker prefers one over the other. (breathing death by drowning; not breathing bringing oneself on surface and survival)
4. There is a chance, but not equal chance, that each course of action will lead to the desired outcome. If the chances are equal, the choice does not matter.
The decision situation and defining of problem may sound easy in most situations; however, problem definition becomes sticky in most business situations because both marketing managers and marketing researchers often flounder in answering several important questions. This is because the decision is not taken by a single person but generally by a team and so it is important to have agreement on various issues for defining a ‘right’ problem. Following are the questions which must be asked before a marketing research problem is identified.
1. Have the decision makers and researchers framed an initial question and looked at the alternatives clearly? Is there an agreement on the initial question and the alternatives among most participants?
2. Is there agreement on the basis for selecting one alternative over others? Have acceptable criteria been developed?
3. What consequences would a ‘wrong’ decision bring upon?
4. Is there a serious disagreement among the team members with regards to choose of research alternatives and their adoption?
If the answers to all four questions are yes, marketing research information is needed to reduce the chance of making the wrong decision. In most failed research exercises it is observed that the team members did not define the answers to the first two questions clearly. If the answer to question three leads to serious consequences and similarly in the case of question four serious disagreements among the team members are found the problem definition needs to be revisited. An example of the same is explained below:
One of the largest cinema chains in the UK faced with a problem of declining audiences. The team in the first meeting came up with the initial problem statement as ‘to discover why cinema audiences are declining’. However, several members of the team were unhappy and stated that research into this problem will lead to vague answers and unimplementable results. An alternative statement of problem was developed ‘to identify ways in which more people could be attracted to attend the cinema’.
Although the two problem statements look quite similar, the outcomes of the research defined after revision will be action oriented in the case of the findings of the second statement, which would not be possible with the general statement defined as the former problem statement. The problem defined at first might bring answers which are beyond the remit of influence for the cinema chain managers. For example, if people stated that the movies now a days are not matching their tastes, it cannot be acted upon by the management of the chain. However, with the second research problem the management can reliably know what the people want from a cinema theatre and such improvements can assist the management in attracting more people towards the cinema. The above example demonstrates the importance of defining the right problem and how it can have a huge effect on the outcome of any research. The major question facing most managers is how to convert a management dilemma into a researchable problem. In real life situation it is not hard to define a management dilemma, however, the difficult thing is to identify a single dilemma on which to focus. As discussed above, choosing a wrong or incorrectly defined management dilemma will result in waste of resources as well as may lead to wrong decisions costing further on the company’s bottom-line. The figure below shows the process of formulating a research question out of management dilemma. It also provides the factors to be considered by a researcher in the process of developing research question. A manager when faced with a dilemma is surrounded by various elements of decision making namely: (1) The decision making environment; (2) Objectives of decision maker; (3) Alternative courses of action and (4) Consequences of alternative actions. If the research question is developed without keeping the above four elements in mind there are all chances that there would a bias in the early stage of the research which will carry itself further in the total process and may lead to wrong conclusion.
For example, a private radio station with declining listener numbers wanted to understand consumers’ listening preferences and a team of researchers were asked to prepare a research proposal for the same. The entrepreneur in charge of the operations at the station stated to the researchers that he already knew what the consumers wanted and wanted the researchers to work on a project the way he had planned it.
The above situation is observed quite often in real life situations where the managers have already made up their mind regarding the research and its findings and so the research in such cases becomes a futile exercise. Being unbiased through the complete research project is one of the most important aspects of marketing research. Many times, real objectives of conducting the research are seldom exposed to the researcher (most to do with researcher being an outside organization and company not intending to divulge confidential information). Therefore, it becomes utmost important for the researcher to probe deeper and bring on surface the real objectives of the research. One effective technique for uncovering the objectives is to confront the decision maker with expected outcomes of the research and asking the decisive course of action from the decision maker. Research can be professionally designed only when the alternative course of action being considered are known. The more obvious course of action is generally provided to the researcher, but it is the researcher’s duty to probe deeper and find out other alternatives which are not being communicated by the decision maker. Quite often the researcher will not be informed of some of the options being considered. The researcher should check to see that all implicit options have been made explicit, since it is important that the research be relevant to all alternatives. Researcher at times must adopt the role of detective in order to discover the hidden agendas and alternatives lurking beneath the surface in any decision situation. If a critical piece of information remains undiscovered, even the most sophisticated research techniques cannot solve the problem. In the case of the radio firm it was found later that the managers were forcing the researchers to conduct the research in a certain format as the plan was to sell of the business using the research results.
A great deal of marketing research is intended to determine the consequences of alternative course of action. To achieve success in the marketplace a decision maker must continuously balance the strategy against the changing micro and macro environmental factors. Marketing research is undertaken by organizations to accurately assess the alternative courses of actions and provide support to the decision maker in the process of decision making. However, many times due to various market pressures an organization pursues a blinded version of marketing research without understanding the consequences of the same and could face trouble. A detailed understanding of the decision-making environment; objectives of the decision maker; alternative courses of action and consequences of alternative actions would enable researchers to translate the management dilemma into an accurate research problem.
Now you have two problems at hand. Covid-19 and anti-obesity drive. Lockdown measures enforced in many countries around the world to curb the COVID-19 pandemic may escalate emotional stress, economic anxiety, and increase the rates of obesity across the population, according to a research which calls for socioeconomic safety nets and community support networks to mitigate these effects. According to the scientists, including those from the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, locking down society to combat COVID-19 creates psychosocial insecurity that may lead to obesity. The review of studies, published in the journal Nature Reviews Endocrinology, noted that counter measures are needed to keep the public both metabolically healthy and safe from the coronavirus. It said the rates of obesity may explode because of measures to limit the spread of Covid-19, adding that investment in obesity research will help inform counter strategies. In the research, Clemmensen and his team outlined how COVID-19 containment strategies could increase rates of obesity. They said people with limited economic resources are more likely to eat highly processed and energy-rich food, which have been shown to stimulate appetite, potentially leading to them eating more calories than they need. The scientists added that physical distancing also increases anxiety by limiting people's ability to socially interact.
They said feelings of loneliness and isolation, combined with confinement within a home setting, can impact food behaviour, causing people to overeat. This effect, according to the research, is compounded by lower levels of physical activity, as people are urged to work from home and venture out as little as possible.
Thorkild I.A. Sorensen, another co-author of the study from the University of Copenhagen, said scientists still do not exactly understand how a person's mental health and economic status end up increasing the risk of one developing obesity. According to the researchers, more studies are needed to uncover the cause and effect behind this process.
But the scientists emphasised that physical distancing and the rising rates of unemployment could lead to increased rates of obesity. According to the researchers, more studies are needed to uncover the cause and effect behind this process. But the scientists emphasised that physical distancing and the rising rates of unemployment could lead to increased rates of obesity. They urged governments and decision makers to consider what impact COVID-19 containment strategies, such as lockdowns, will have on the public's metabolic health.
Researchers have revealed intersections of the biological pathways behind coronavirus infection and type 2 diabetes, findings that may lead to new approaches in treatment for hospitalised Covid-19 patients. According to the research, published in the journal Endocrine Reviews, individuals with obesity and diabetes are known to be at increased risk for complications arising from influenza, with the two conditions emerging as important comorbidities for disease severity in the context of Covid-19.
Some cells in the lungs and the gut, the scientists said, are important sites for the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, to enter and infect hosts, causing inflammation in these regions. They found that some of these cells produce specific proteins that are also expressed by cells during type 2 diabetes development. However, he added that more studies need to be conducted to understand the risks and benefits of commonly used diabetes medications in patients with severe coronavirus infections. According to Drucker, the pandemic highlights the importance of expanding innovative delivery of diabetes care and regular communication between people with diabetes and their health care providers.
It is true that there is ample of opportunities for you in the field of fitness and motivation industry, but before you launch a marketplace you must look at the bigger picture. Since March, the fitness industry — of which around 5% is organised — has been under crippling pressure because of the pandemic and the lockdown. With rentals and salaries to pay, and no revenue to speak of, many gyms have shut down. Job losses have run into thousands. Many trainers and support staff were sent on leave without pay or with reduced pay. Health and fitness aggregator Gympik, which has tie-ups with 15,000-odd gyms across India, said it expects 20-25% of gyms to shut down and at least 30-35% jobs, including sales and corporate, to be lost.
“The fear of Covid is still very prevalent. Gyms will have to build confidence. They will have to sanitise constantly and have extraordinarily strong social distancing norms,” Gympik chief executive Amaresh Ojha said. “We recommend that gyms start to target the 15-20% people who buy personal trainer services in general since the value proposition is extremely high. The personal training fee is much higher than the gym fee itself,” said Ojha. About 50-55% of the people want to come back to the gym as per an internal survey, said Nikhil Kakkar, the chief operating officer at Gold's Gym, which runs about 150 gyms in 95 Indian cities. However, they will look at capacity limiting. At US-headquartered fitness chain Anytime Fitness, which has 87 centres in 32 cities across India, there will be gym reservation systems, sanitising stations, social distancing, AC and ventilation control, temperature checks and stringent cleaning protocols. All of these have been put up on the company’s website to reassure its 100,000-plus members. Ritu Agarwal, the CEO of Kolkata-based Rush Fitness Clubs with five gyms of 15,000-16,000 sq. ft each, said the last few months have disrupted the business. Of the 5,000 members, about 30% did not renew annual contracts when they expired. Now, she says Rush Fitness is ready with stringent SOPs to get clients back to working out.
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath
Alfred Chandler compared the history of corporate capitalism in the US, Britain, and Germany. The large vertically integrated corporations emerged in the US to replace what had been a fragmented structure of production and distribution. Britain’s corporations and their institutes were seriously lagging behind the US managerial revolution. As Chandler has claimed, the large-scale production technology of the 19th century required vertical integration and conscious managerial attention. The transformation from functional to product organizations was the means to enhance control and coordination. For most of the 20th century, vertically integrated managerial hierarchies persisted because it was the appropriate solution for multinationals, MNCs to maintain the minimum efficient scale of operations. Globalization and the digital economy have challenged the doctrine of vertical integration. The transformation from the vertically integrated production system to networking needs to enhance flexibility without losing control. The economic disaster of middle-management has led to the restructuring of the industrialized societies, especially in the US. The process model experimented in Japanese industrial firms, notably in Toyota, has been superior in productivity (like process and product quality). It is possible to speak about a drastic organizational revolution.
We are during transition from the industrial society to the information society. Circumstances in global markets can be highlighted by uncertainty, complexity etc that are the major reasons to the de-integration of the vertically integrated production. In the industries where knowledge is replacing labour and capital as the key value driver an extreme de-integration and outsourcing of the production into projects is the most prominent. This is because the increased flexibility by a project organization, as the response to market (demand) uncertainty, provides more economies of scope than a functional organization. An example is a modern film studio that is highly dependent on a scare resource provided by third party namely well-known actors. In the past, a film studio was able to appropriate much of the value from its creative talents by utilizing long-term contracts. A project organization constructing on a film-by-film basis allows knowledge to accrue to individuals who can sell their services to the highest bidder.
Peter Drucker, the well-known management advisor of many decades in the 20th century, has claimed that replacing managerial hierarchies with networking has been the greatest organization and industry structure shifts of the 20th century. The era of digital globalization has replaced the era of trade-based globalization. Digitalization is revolutionary because it has increased the importance of space and scope to glue together productive processes. The technological forces of the digital era promote a firms’ ability to use the applications of modularized production chains in the global contexts. The modularity of manufacturing creates norms for the coordination and co-alignment of processes. In the deconstructive model of manufacturing, the information-rich part, such as industrial services, is often integrated to the headquarters of MNCs when the commodity parts are relocated globally. Common de jure or de facto standards are the prerequisites for modularization and for the fast ramp-ups and pilot productions of commodities. Modularization and standardization of industrial commodities makes relocation of production easier because the core competence is no more the mastery of production activities. Dell Computers is a well-known example of the use of new technologies to order and get components from suppliers at short notice. The suppliers of intermediate goods use new technologies to make it easier to detect faults and, therefore, move production closer and cut delivery times.
The Volkswagen Group is one of the world’s leading automobile manufacturers and the largest carmaker in Europe. Its sales revenue in 2013 totalled €197 billion and profit after tax to €9.1 billion. The Group has 12 brands. Each brand has its own character and operates as an independent entity on the market. The product spectrum ranges from motorcycles to low-consumption small cars and luxury vehicles. In the commercial vehicle sector, the products include ranges from pick-ups, buses, and heavy trucks. The Group operates 107 production plants of which 19 are in Europe and 8 in other continents. The Group has 572,800 employees worldwide and produces some 39,350 vehicles, and work in vehicle-related services or other fields of business. Its vehicles are sold in 153 countries. The Group’s goal is to offer attractive, safe, and environmentally sound vehicles which can compete in an increasingly tough market and set world standards in their respective class.
Networking has thought to be the advantage of SMEs/entrepreneurs but MNCs like Volkswagen master their own network of production, sales, and service networks globally through their de facto standards of production plants and through well-known brands. Volkswagen continuous builds competences e.g. protection, allocation and use of IPRs. The economies of scale and scope are huge for the company. SMEs do need to organize mutual collaboration to avoid the obstacles of small scale. Subcontracting Excellence Club S.E.C ry is a network consisting of SMEs which have their special field of expertise in metal-based industry, mechanical engineering, technical planning, and industrial design. SEC is the basis on which the cooperation is built and where the versatile skills of the members speed up the development of new ideas. The problem of growth firms in international operations is how to compensate the small scale in competition against MNCs. Instead of scale, growth firms must rely on scope. The difficulty of economizing the extended scope of resources through networking depends on the integration of assets (social, knowledge/technology and money) into a model that is applicable to growth firms.
Economies have long been knowledge-based. Sumerians in the Mesopotamian river basin began the use of clay tablets 5,000 years ago. As Kenneth Arrow pointed out, information as an economic commodity has attributes of an experience good. Individuals intending to obtain information cannot know in advance the costs and benefits of certain types of information before they have acquired it. Arrow called that the information paradox. The geographic proximity matters in transmitting tacit knowledge. The Internet revolution has dropped the cost of transmitting information across the global geographic space, although the marginal cost of transmitting tacit knowledge rises with distance. While it is possible to translate a piece of information into bits, knowledge represents capabilities of individuals associated with understanding, as well as the abilities to organize, interpret and assess information, while information is knowledge reduced to messages that can be transmitted to decision agents. The value of information depends on the recipient’s prior knowledge. Conversely, the more we know about the subject, the better able we are to evaluate and use new data about it.
It is possible to transform codifiable knowledge into bit strings. Tacit knowledge embodied in practices or people cannot be transformed. The Internet produces forces for both de-agglomeration and agglomeration allowing remote coordination of innovative activities. Because the Internet cannot ‘feel’ or ‘touch’, it maintains needs for deep personal contacts.
According to Miles, digitalization and the Internet facilitate worldwide relationships with clients. The costs of searching global partners are marginal compared to the time before digitalization. The Internet is the most user-friendly technology that have empowered the young generation and been the main catalyst of the fundamental shift from seller-driven to buyer-driven markets. Some firms have created on-line direct, make-to-order distribution model, and, thereby, they have succeeded to cut costs by 20–45%through digital technology. Certain business areas are global by their nature. As activities are codified and digitized, they can be moved costless through space. This is true for knowledge intensive business services, such as accounting, advertising and, consulting in which global, the electronic delivery to customers is a substitute to the in-person delivery. Some other providers of knowledge intensive business services, such as German Hidden Champions, have made an opposite strategic choice. They have invested to keep face-to-face contacts with their key customer relations and succeeded excellently.
The internet’s biggest success stories are: Amazon (about 50% of America’s book market, over 50% in e-books); Alibaba (about 80% of e-commerce in China); Facebook (1.3 billion active members); and Google (68% of online searches in America, more than 90% in Europe). These companies are born-global. The main reason is the high penetration rate of internet, over 3 billion people and near 50% of the world’s population. Knowledge is replacing labour and capital as the key value driver. Markets are expanding from regional to global. Intelligent networks and virtual spaces are superseding the need for material investments and bits are becoming more powerful than atoms (Romer, 1989, 1990). It is possible to transform the codifiable knowledge into bit strings, while tacit knowledge, embodied in practices, people or networks of relationships, cannot.
It is probably Silicon Valley's most striking mantra: “Fail fast, fail often.” It is recited at technology conferences, pinned to company walls, bandied in conversation. Failure is not only invoked but celebrated. Entrepreneurs give speeches detailing their misfires. Academics laud the virtue of making mistakes. FailCon, a conference about “embracing failure”, launched in San Francisco in 2009 and is now an annual event, with technology hubs in Barcelona, Tokyo, Porto Alegre and elsewhere hosting their own versions. While the rest of the world recoils at failure, in other words, technology's dynamic innovators enshrine it as a rite of passage en route to success. But what about those tech entrepreneurs who lose – and keep on losing? What about those who start one company after another, refine pitches, tweak products, pivot strategies, reinvent themselves … and never succeed? What about the angst masked behind upbeat facades? Silicon Valley is increasingly asking such questions, even as the tech boom rewards some start-ups with billion-dollar valuations, sprinkling stardust on founders who talk of changing the world.
Companies typically die around 20 months after their last financing round and after having raised $1.3m, according to a study by the analytics firms CB Insights titled The RIP Report – start-up death trends. Failure is difficult to quantify because it does not necessarily mean liquidation. Many start-ups limp on for years, ignored by the market but sustained by founders' savings or investors. Software engineers employed by such zombies face a choice. Stay in hope the company will take off, turning stock options into gold. Or quit and take one of the plentiful jobs at other start-ups or giants like Apple and Google. Founders face a more agonising dilemma. Continue working 100-hour weeks and telling employees and investors their dream is alive, that the metrics are improving, and hope it's true, or pull the plug. The loss aversion principle – the human tendency to strongly prefer avoiding losses to acquiring gains – tilts many towards the former, said Bruno Bowden, a former engineering manager at Google who is now a venture investor and entrepreneur.
Silicon Valley wannabes tell origin fables of start-up founders who maxed out credit cards before dazzling Wall Street, the same way Hollywood's struggling actors find solace in the fact Brad Pitt dressed as a chicken for El Pollo Loco before his breakthrough. Venture capitalists and angel investors tolerate failure only up to a point, said Bowden. "You won't get funding unless you're credible. One previous failure can be OK but multiple failures will make it impossible to get funding."
Many founders are confessing anxiety in public for the first time via anonymous gossip sites like Secret and startupsanonymous.com. “My biggest mistake was trying to be an entrepreneur when I should have continued on with my current job,” confided one.
“I’ve got this month to pull something off, otherwise I’m screwed and looking for a job. I’m scared as hell that I can’t do it,” wrote another.
These are most spectacular failures of Silicon Valley:
1. Andrew Mason, Groupon
Scorned as the “worst C.E.O. of 2012” by CNBC’s Herb Greenberg, Andrew Mason was at the helm of Groupon when the company went public, an I.P.O. Greenberg wrote off as the “most over-hyped . . . of recent years.” Years after going public, Groupon still has trouble turning a profit.
2. Elizabeth Holmes, Theranos
Elizabeth Holmes became emblematic of Silicon Valley excess when her $9 billion blood-testing start-up, Theranos, became the subject of a series of Wall Street Journal investigations that reported that the company’s technology did not actually work. Theranos is currently under federal criminal investigation.
3. Parker Conrad, Zenefits
Zenefits C.E.O. and co-founder Parker Conrad resigned in 2016 amid concerns over questions about his $4.5 billion start-up’s regulatory compliance. Further reports insinuated Zenefits’ company culture under Conrad was more frat house than hackathon, complete with allegations of sex in the stairwells and plenty of drinking.
4. Marissa Mayer, Yahoo
Hailed as the turnaround boss Yahoo so desperately needed when she was hired for the job in 2012, Marissa Mayer has come under fire as investors have lost their patience waiting for a miracle that never came. (The millions she reportedly spent on lavish parties and perks, while the ailing Internet giant circled the drain, did not help.) Yahoo is now up for sale.
5. David Byttow, Secret
David Byttow, the founder of anonymous-posting app Secret, pivoted his year-old start-up to an incubator in 2015 after allegedly pocketing millions and buying a flashy Ferrari. Google Ventures investor Bill Maris later compared the start-up shutting down to a “bank heist.”
6. Michelle Peluso, Gilt
Gilt Groupe, the once hot flash-sales start-up, was valued at $1 billion in 2011, having raised more than $286 million in funding since its founding. Five years later, Hudson’s Bay, the parent company of Saks Fifth Avenue, purchased it for $250 million in what CNN dubbed the “ultimate flash sale.”
7. Anthony Bay, Rdio
Rdio filed for bankruptcy in 2015, showing just how hard it can be to make a viable streaming service. Rdio had raised $125 million in funding at a $500 million valuation. Pandora scooped up “many employees” from the failed start-up afterward, though its C.E.O. Anthony Bay did not join them.
8. Dan Wagner, Powa Technologies
C.E.O. Dan Wagner said that his company’s product, a glorified Q.R. scanner called PowaTag, was going to help Powa become “the greatest technology company of all time.” In February, $2.7 billion Powa shut down after struggling with its flagship product and, according to former employees, Wagner’s own hubris.
9. Adora Cheung, Homejoy
On-demand cleaning start-up Homejoy shut down in 2015 after failing to hold onto its customers. C.E.O. Adora Cheung reportedly did not work to fix its retention rates, which flopped as a result of offering $19 flat-fee introductory deals. The “deciding factors” in Homejoy closing its doors, however, were the four lawsuits it faced from workers who claimed they had been misclassified as contractors. The lawsuits were still pending as of last summer.
10. Ben Kaufman, Quirky
Quirky, a start-up that sought to crowdsource inventions to the masses, filed for bankruptcy in September 2015. Quirky struggled to raise funding and C.E.O. Ben Kaufman stepped down a month before his company folded. Quirky sold Wink, its software business, to Flextronics for $15 million.
11. Scott Thompson, Yahoo
Scott Thompson served as C.E.O. of Yahoo before the company hired Marissa Mayer. Months after Thompson was hired to the job, vocal activist investor Dan Loeb sent Yahoo’s board a letter questioning Thompson’s credentials and wondering if perhaps Thompson had “embellished his academic credentials.” Thompson was immediately replaced with Ross Levinsohn, after the board discovered Thompson had falsely added a computer-science degree to his résumé.
12. Carly Fiorina, H.P.
When Carly Fiorina was let go from her six-year tenure as C.E.O. of Hewlett-Packard, the company’s stock jumped 10 percent upon the news of her firing. While she was C.E.O., Fiorina didn’t increase the company’s profits, and she actually decreased H.P.’s shareholders’ wealth by 52 percent. A disastrous merger with Compaq, which led her to fire some 30,000 employees, haunted Fiorina throughout her failed senate and presidential campaigns, too.
13. Jason Goldberg, Fab
E-commerce start-up Fab was once valued at $900 million, a near unicorn in Silicon Valley terms. But after allegedly burning through $200 million of its $336 million in venture capital, C.E.O. Jason Goldberg was forced to shutter its European arm and lay off two-thirds of its staff.
14. Gurbaksh Chahal, RadiumOne and Gravity4
Fired in 2014 from his ad-tech firm RadiumOne following a domestic-violence conviction, Gurbaksh Chahal founded a new company to compete with the one he was kicked out of. But Gravity4, his new firm, was sued for gender discrimination in 2015, though that case is still pending, and former employees have contemplated legal action against him.
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath
Investing in any venture is not easy, in fact in these Covid-19 times it is exceedingly difficult. Before an investor invests in your idea, he/she will try to gauge the risk that your venture will be facing. Let us discuss these risks one by one and you will understand why there are no investors.
Risk: Many people do not properly understand the nature of ‘risk’. Risk per se is not dangerous; it is the consequences of what happens should the risk occur that might be. When given the choice between a high risk or a low risk occurrence, most take the low risk option; a few, possibly suspecting a trap, take the high risk option; only a small minority ask “risk of what?”, and of course they are right. The original question is fundamentally flawed, because it does not give any information about the consequences of the occurrences: but it very frequently catches people out. The factors that allow unpredictability to creep into an outcome are risks. Each risk has two components:
The likelihood of it happening, and
The impact it has should it happen
In a business environment, these are most easily distinguished by considering two simple situations. It is quite common in any business that from time to time human error will cause invoices to go out late. This is annoying and might cause some local difficulties, but it is unlikely to cripple the business. The risk is likely, but relatively trivial. On the other hand, it is very unlikely that a dishonest employee will remain undiscovered for long enough to embezzle a business-crippling sum of money, but it could (and sometimes does) happen. This risk is then unlikely, but major.
How is it simplest to assess these considerations when looking at risk?
Clearly the first step is to recognise what risks are threats. This is probably the easy bit to do. Business is all about recognising what might go wrong, assessing and pre-empting it with sensible actions. The major way to make an initial assessment of the risk factors in Business Angel Investment is enquiry: check it out. The term ‘Due Diligence’ can be used, but it is more often misused. It can be useful to consider two aspects of these enquiries: firstly, whether to invest, and secondly what is being invested in. This latter we will call ‘Legal Due Diligence’, and where an existing business is involved, you will obviously want to make rigorous and exhaustive checks into its status, shareholders, residence, the claims of its managers, tax, insurances, trading history, employment status, potential litigation and so forth. We will look at how far this needs to go in the section on Doing a Deal. But, this comes after you have decided that you are interested in investing in the first place: this decision, especially in a new or start-up business, is best and most efficiently done through simple enquiry. Find and ask someone independent of the business who knows the market, technology, product space, model, people, etc.
Clearly the rigour and extent of the enquiry process is up to each individual and situation. We will look at this in more detail after we have looked at the Business Plan and once, we’ve met the People. That is when the real digging starts.
Quantifying Risk: Traditionally, ‘risk’ is found by multiplying the likelihood of occurrence by the severity of impact. Unfortunately, this is less helpful than it might be because, while the mathematical product would be the same, the impact on a business of a ‘likely but trivial’ risk is actually quite different from that of an ‘unlikely but major’ risk. When considering any particular factor, you will need to decide whether it has more of a ‘likelihood’ or of a ‘severity’ character. Complex factors, like real life, will obviously have components of both, but the trick is to isolate particular factors into their simplest components, which are likely to influence just one dimension.
All this is purely subjective. Every risk factor you assess will be done subjectively, upon considered reflection and preferably after discussion with other informed people. The more anyone does the analysis, the better and more reliably consistent will become his judgments. It’s a bit like learning the violin: horrible at first, but with practice it can become deceptively simple. This matrix is not intended to give specious rigour to the results of the analysis, but simply to provide a framework with which to think about risks and their impacts. By providing such a framework, you reflect upon what are the basic risk factors and influences, and arrive at a decision about the nature, likelihood and severity of the risk. Then at any rate you have something constructive to work with when deciding what to do about it. We use this matrix to help assess the five identified business risk factors: Vision; Stage; Business Model (Finance Operations Resources Market); People (Character Experience Capability Knowledge); and Motivation. Each of these is analysed subjectively but consistently and given a score out of ten based upon both the written plan and the competence of the management. To work out the total risk, we simply multiply the assessed risks together. This is combined and weighed against the potential Rewards, which are calculated separately using several different approaches. Thus, if we assess the five risk factors as being 10/10, 9/10, 10/10, 7/10 and 4/10 we combine them into an overall riskiness of 10 × 9 × 10 × 7 × 4 divided by 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10, which is 25,200/100,000 or around 1 in 4 (given the inherent subjectivity and vagueness of the values involved, it’s always worth rounding to a simple number). It is also worth noting at this point that while multiplying the risk factors together makes sense, it also makes it exceedingly difficult to come up with winners, just like the real world. For example, a 50-50 chance may not be too bad: give it 5/10. But multiplying together 5 risk factors all of which are 5/10 gives us a result of 3125/100000, or about 1 in 30. That is like backing an outsider at Aintree. So later on, in assessing the various business risks, we are looking for eight’s nines and tens out of ten, with the occasional four or five allowed, but just the one unless you really know what you’re doing. Secondly another important note is that the matrix is asymmetric. This is because, as we have said, risk factors are asymmetric: the recognition, assessment, and management of a ‘likely but trivial’ risk differ in quality from those of an ‘unlikely but major’ one. This does not mean that the latter cannot be coped with, merely that they must be accurately assessed. Understanding what to do with which risks is the key to success. In practice the process of balancing ‘likely but trivial’ risks against ‘unlikely but major’ ones can be exceedingly difficult, and we look at Risk Management later.
The Business Plan: It’s worth making a quick note to clarify one essential point: a business model is often easily confused with the management’s ability to implement it. The model is ‘management independent’, it is a matter of theory: is it elegant? Should it work? Are they making life difficult for themselves? How competent would they need to be to implement it, or do they depend on ‘magic moments’? Have they remembered they can only recruit people, not Superheroes? It is important to understand what the Business Plan is for. A professionally written and structured Business Plan should, of course, describe as accurately as possible the business opportunity and potential outcome, incorporating a clear summary of how the outcome is to be achieved against what odds. But it was written specifically to attract you, the Business Angel, or at least it should have been if it is to succeed. Can they say it simply and with clarity? As Winston Churchill famously said: ‘I am going to have to make a long speech tonight because I’ve not had time to write a short one’
There should be an elevator pitch to point you in the right general direction, and a brief executive summary to give you a first pass at understanding the business. If there isn’t, it implies that the author may not really understand what he is doing. Can you tell who wrote the plan? The entrepreneur, or an adviser? Who owns the ideas? Is it a plan or a wish list?
Was the plan written as a strategy for the writer, to give him a road map? Are the principals knowledgeable? Or do they come across as ‘winging it’? And what is the audience it was written for? A bank, management peers, funders, or whom? Each audience has a significantly different requirement of a business, and a well written and targeted document will appeal specifically to exactly that audience. The implication of this is that a poorly targeted document again reflects badly on the author, and the reader has to be concerned about whether the author really understands what sort of funding he is trying to get, and what he is really trying to do. Great entrepreneurs don’t have to be great writers, so when you read a business plan it may be a mess. Yet even so there may be something in it that you can see has the essence of a brilliant opportunity. But if reading through it is hard work, clearly the author either has significant communication difficulties, or is too entwined with the technology, or both. Is it meant to be something to make money from, or to build the entrepreneur’s ego? It all boils down to whether at first run through you think whether or not there’s a chance you could make money out of it. How do you rate the assumptions they have used to build their Financial Model? What are the Uncertainties? And will others also make money out of it? If so, then the secondary but incredibly important issue is if you think you could work with these people?
The Business Plan: Vision Risk: Vision is what gets you going. If there’s not much Vision, you’re not excited so you won’t invest (unless maybe the entrepreneur is your nephew). So Vision has to score very highly, by definition. There have been millions of ambitious business plans, and one or two have come about. Microsoft started by envisioning ‘a PC on every desk’. Did that sound ambitious then? Think of Amazon, eBay, Facebook, Google, Skype…. Does the business you are looking at have good growth potential? Does it fly? If they can excite you there is a chance, they might excite a customer: how are the hairs on the back of your neck? What are they trying to achieve? Where are they going and how are they going to get there: how realistic is it? The realisation of Vision can be a problem: is it a Vision or a Dream? If you get Vision wrong, you will be starting again from scratch, but it’s difficult to see how Vision could be misjudged. Does it plan to grab the world, or not?
The Business Plan: Stage Risk: David Berkus is one of the original Californian Business Angels and is renowned for his thoughtful and practical contributions to Business Angel thinking. He has written several books on the subject and devised his own method for making rough valuations of early stage businesses. We use his logic as the basis for estimating early stage risk. Consider the main Business Risk factors – Vision, Model, Operations, Resources and Finance – and allocate a ‘stage value’ to each: how mature, developed, proven? Or still just a good idea? As a useful rule-of-thumb, consider these estimates for the various Risk factors as guides and use them to derive a number for Stage Risk as a mark out of 10. And if you do not think the answer quite hits your mark, change it: it’s only meant to help. Stage is what it is: if it is exceedingly early, you know it’s riskier. Factor it in, of course, but do not discard on Stage alone. It is important, but not essential: if you have excellent Motivated People with good Vision and a Model that is realistic and simple, and doesn’t rely on re-educating the world, you can cope with a low Stage score on Risk, especially if you are going to be closely involved.
The Business Plan: Model Risk
If their Vision sits comfortably and potentially realisably in the Marketplace, we move on to the four pillars of the business Model:
A. Sales and Markets: what is to be sold and to whom
B. Operations: how is it to be organised
C. Resources: what are needed to achieve all this; and,
D. Finances: what money and information are needed to keep the rest on track
A. Model Risk: Sales and Markets: This is the most basic consideration of all: without a market, there is no business. How big is the market? How mature is it, and with what potential? Does the entrepreneur demonstrate that he really understands it?
B. Model Risk: Operations: If the sales and marketing model is believable, once they’ve captured the demand can they deliver it in a way that makes sense? Are the Operations in line with and sensitive to the planned growth? Is the administration thought through, at sensible salary levels? Do they look effective and efficient, and how competent would management and staff need to be for it all to work smoothly? Have they remembered to allow for errors frailties and imperfections? If there are any requirements for regulatory compliance, have they been thought through definitively? What controls and systems are proposed? Are there any showstoppers?
C. Model Risk: Resources: Have they got the right amount of – whatever! – to make it work? Without wasting cash on over supply, yet without being under-resourced. Enough of the right people in the right places? Enough physical space, both for people and for things? Transport, logistics? Information? Technical? Intellectual? What skills resources and relationships does management already have? We’re not looking here at the entrepreneurial flair of the Principals, you haven’t met them yet and we cover that under People Risk, but we are looking at whether you can tell if they appreciate the sheer management issues of resource availability and allocation, and can cope. Have they ever been through the pain barriers of, for example, recruitment and providing training? Do they know what it takes? Or, somewhere in the middle of the plan, do they say they will recruit a sales force, and from that point on sales increase exponentially? What are the potential problems and disasters? Are there enough resources to cope with the unforeseen? If not, there will be a very high chance of an unplanned future rights issue, and in this case be prepared to say ‘no’ on the principle of ‘good money after bad’.
D. Model Risk: Finances: This pulls together everything in the model that you’ve looked at. How sensible is it? This is not just about the obvious question, is there enough? It is about whether there are any key dependencies or drivers, and are there any major weaknesses? Do the principals understand finances and who needs what when, for if they don’t how can you trust your funds to their stewardship? Does it read as if they own their plan, or as if the numbers are an added afterthought? What assumptions are they basing their projections on, and do they seem sensible, realistic? Are the financials complete, and have they included their own assessment of sensitivities? It is worth noting that 99% of plans never achieve projections, mainly because the vast majority of plans assume that everything goes perfectly without hindrance, rather than that they will have to operate in the real world. We have identified 16 independent variable assumptions that contribute to a Business Model, each of which is ‘Uncertain’. The following parameters all have values which, if relevant in the Plan, must be assumed by the Principals and are built into the assumptions used in forecasting their business model financials. Each of these is, give or take, a variable, some more than others. Some may be more within the control of management than others, whilst variations in others might require management to be responsive and flexible. But each of the following can potentially vary in ways that will have major impact upon the business model and forecasts, and all the potential variations must be factored in.
People Risk: Before we examine the details, just think for a moment about the overall picture. People are who will get the Vision from plan to reality, who convert the business model into bank balance. They are key. People must score very highly. And if they’re not Motivated, you haven’t got a hope. But bear in mind that, as we shall see later, Motivation has two aspects: their Motivation before they meet you, then their Motivation after the deal….So far, all we’ve seen in the Business Plan is theory: maybe good, maybe less so. Even if it’s the greatest, it’s still theory. And People is the most important risk factor of all, the means by and through which all else becomes reality, or not.
Before you meet them, check into the people’s background. What evidence can you find here that will help them drive the business forward? What is their track record? Do you think they could pull it off? Does it look as though they could make it happen, turn the plan into Bank Balance? Can they scale up satisfactorily, do you think they have thought it all through? Or are there any indications that when the going gets tough, they will abandon ship? Alternatively, will anything change if it all does work? Be aware that in the process of growing to attract a purchaser, the business also becomes increasingly attractive as a lifestyle for the management. This can be the graveyard of Business Angel investing, and the cause of many a Boardroom battle. You have decided to meet them because you like the plan: now you need to get them to try to explain it verbally from their viewpoint. Do they really understand what they’re selling, which is a share of their business and not ‘widgets’? To get across the right message you need to ensure that they really understand that you want to bring more to the table than your money and that you are seeking to back them and not their idea. Do they rely on a formal presentation, or can they adlib? Get them to talk about and around what they’re trying to do without too much interruption. This is your chance to let them make or break themselves. Once they’ve had a good run through, test them: ask the awkward questions; question their assumptions; question their credentials. What’s their secret ingredient, the one that will enable them to succeed in the teeth of the competition? And always listen closely to the answers: how flexible is their approach? Can they cope easily with challenge? Will they work closely with you, or insist on doing their own thing exclusively? Can they learn, or do they already know best? Pick out something to ask them about, it does not matter what, and see if they understand the plan. Even if they manage to persuade you that the plan is achievable, are they the people to achieve it? Will they be able to live up to the expectations they have built up in you?
Motivation Risk: Are you ideally looking for an opportunity where highly competent management are driving forward a low risk business? Don’t expect too much of a rough ride, or phenomenal returns. And do not expect to see many opportunities like that either! There are several aspects to an individual’s motivation that need to be analysed and thought through, but principally you need to distinguish motivation before the deal from that after the deal. And having met and understood them, then make a judgement about what the latter will be if you can. Before the deal, examine what they have already sacrificed for the Business. Is it their ‘baby’? Will they be able to let some of it go? Do some personal digging by getting up very early and taking a quiet look at who arrives at their office when. If you phone out of hours, who answers? Are the entrepreneurs’ personal and family goals in line with the business’s aspirations? Do they come across as exit or lifestyle oriented? Do they come across as greedy or needy for higher salary and benefits than you feel justified at this stage of the business? They still must live, but they can take benefits from the cash profits at the same time as you: when they come in. What do they stand to lose if they fail to deliver? It is especially important that the entrepreneur’s commitment to success is underpinned by fear of failure: whatever their absolute contribution, it should be relatively substantial, and they should have nowhere else to run. Be aware that a frequent issue for fund seekers is the fear that an investor is wishing to take control of their ‘baby’. How much of what will belong to whom? Do they feel they get to keep enough, or maybe you think they might even keep too much if they become insufficiently driven? Who is going to run the company? Who is making money for whom? A final consideration when considering motivation is a phenomenon called ‘Risk homeostasis’. This implies that an individual has an inbuilt level of acceptable risk which feels comfortable, and this varies between individuals. When the level of acceptable risk in one part of the individual’s life changes, this tends to mean that there will be a corresponding and inverse change in acceptable risk elsewhere. This clearly has implications for deal structure and how it might affect management motivation. Many studies have shown that those who value the future more highly have lower accident rates and take fewer risks than those who discount the value of the future. They also find that there need to be direct incentives for people to behave in a more risk-aware way.
After the deal, will the critical objectives of the team remain aligned with those of the Investor? Negotiating and finalising the terms of any deal will have a major influence on how you assess the motivation of the Principals, so the final judgment has to be made later, but for now you still have to crystallise your thoughts. Make an assessment of the principal’s financial commitment and motivation as seen and on the deal terms you would like, and score Motivation out of ten. You may well have to review this after you have done the deal, but it’s the best you can do for now. If it’s easier to visualise the ‘before the deal’ figure separately from the ‘after’ figure, try scoring them individually and multiply them together. Motivation just must be high. Please keep this score: the ‘Motivation’ score contributes the fifth and last bit of the five ‘risk’ bits of ‘risk-reward’. Multiply all the risks together to get at a ‘number out of 100,000’ and simplify it to arrive at your final score for Risk: ‘1/r’. The first meeting is finished. You should sum up and give the entrepreneur your ‘score’. If it is not for you, tell them now. If it might be for you, tell them what happens next, and by when. Agree the date of the next meeting, and what they will need to have done by then to keep your interest.
Your plan is no doubt great, but the investors must perceive it that way as well to put their money into it.
Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath
To link your LINKEDIN account there are many ways.
If your LinkedIn profile is set to public, it will have a link (URL) you can use to share your profile with others.
To find your public profile's URL:
1. Click the Me icon at the top of your LinkedIn homepage.
2. Click View profile.
3. On your profile page, click Edit public profile & URL on the right rail.
4. Under the section Edit URL in the right rail, locate your public profile URL.
• It'll be an address that starts with www.linkedin.com/in.
5. Copy and paste this link to share it with others.
If you are using iOS you can use the following methods:
1. To find your public profile’s URL:
1. Tap your profile photo > View Profile.
2. Scroll down to the Contact section.
3. Under the Your Profile section, locate your public profile URL.
• It will be an address that starts with www.linkedin.com/in.
4. Copy and paste this link to share it with others.
If you are an android user:
To find your public profile’s URL:
1. Tap your profile photo > View Profile.
2. Scroll down to the Contact section.
3. Under the Your Profile section, locate your public profile URL.
• It will be an address that starts with www.linkedin.com/in.
4. Copy and paste this link to share it with others.
If you are a Mobile Browser & Light App user:
If your LinkedIn profile is set to public, it will have a web address (URL) you can share with others.
1. Tap the Profile icon.
2. Scroll down to the Contact section.
3. Under LinkedIn, locate your public profile URL.
• It’ll be an address that starts with https://www.linkedin.com/in.
4. You can copy and paste this link to share it with others.
Wish you a good health. Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath
Work life balance is important for everyone because life in these Covid-19 times is incredibly stressful. Modern day stress seems to be more widespread than ever and many of the reasons are obvious, such as more work by less people, financial uncertainty, job insecurity, constant performance measurement, the increasing requirement for instant information or response, impossible targets, juggling work/home priorities, the downsides of cyberspace technology, the depressing state of affairs in many parts of the world and much more besides. Another reason sometimes suggested is that, thanks to far reaching research, so much more is known about the subject now and some will suggest that this encourages unhealthy circumspection. I take the point but suggest it underlines the need to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject rather than a superficial one. There might be many reasons to be stressful as most of us are working form home. These reasons are as follows:
1. Being set unrealistic deadlines
2. The state of my teenager’s bedroom
3. People not calling me back
4. 300 e-mails waiting for me after two days away
5. My boss ignoring me
6. The traffic jams on my way to work
7. Colleagues’ idle chatter when we are all so busy
8. Old ladies holding everyone up at the check-out
9. Multi choice telephone answering systems
10. People who do not seem to care
11. My next-door neighbour’s cat
12. Pointless meetings which go on for ever
Given the premise that we have choice in the extent to which we allow everyday frustrations and setbacks to affect our mood, it follows that our perceptions of such matters are vital and of course these can vary alarmingly from day to day, influenced by what else has been going on at work, home, or even the journey between the two. A challenging situation today may give us a buzz, whereas the identical situation tomorrow might be a burden. The dual recognition that (a) we have choice of perception and (b) that we can often be our own worst enemy are not easy to remember when we are having a bad day.
It is a common misconception that some level of stress is a good thing, but you will find very few academics supporting this view. It is a grey area because of the semantics of the words we use. We all benefit at times from experiencing pressure in our lives, but if we feel broadly in control of it, then it is not stress we are experiencing. Pressure can be invaluable in helping us to concentrate and to focus. Some of the physiological consequences of stress can be valuable when they are anticipated. A professional firefighter entering a burning building might be experiencing a thrust of extra physical strength and consciousness, as might a sprinter pushing off the blocks. But they understand this short-lived advantage, feel in control of it and can turn it to their advantage. Stress in itself is not an illness, but it can readily be the trigger for some physical health problem. There is, however, a notable exception in cases of prolonged burnout which might result in the mental stability of the individual being impaired permanently. Conversely, some of the most relaxed individuals I have met have told me they were only that way as a result of their experience of burnout and their subsequent resolve to change their outlook on life: ‘I’m never going there again’.
There are common signs of stress, these are as follows:
1. Physical signs:
1. palpitations – throbbing heart
2. pain and tightness in the chest
6. muscle twitches
8. headache, vague aches or pains
9. skin irritation or rashes, susceptibility to allergies
10. clenched fists or jaw
11. feeling faint
12. frequent colds, flu or other infections
13. recurrence of previous illnesses
14. constipation or diarrhoea
15. rapid weight gain or loss
16. alteration of the menstrual pattern in women
2. Emotional signs:
1. swings in mood
2. increased worrying
3. feeling tense
4. drained, no enthusiasm
5. feeling angry, guilty
7. feeling nervous, apprehensive, anxious
8. feelings of helplessness
9. loss of confidence and self-esteem
10. lack of concentration, withdrawal into daydreams
3. Behavioural signs:
2. poor work
3. increased dependence on nicotine, alcohol, or drugs
4. overeating or loss of appetite
5. change in sleep pattern, difficulty in getting to sleep and waking tired
6. loss of interest in sex
7. impaired speech
8. withdrawal from supportive relationships
10. taking work home more
11. too busy to relax
12. not looking after oneself
13. speeding up – talking, walking, eating, drinking
Can you relate to any of the following? If so, select a few changes and experiment with moving towards a more balanced life. Even small steps can make a real difference.
1) Work/home interface. Could you spend less time at work, at least on certain days of the week? If you must take work home, try excluding certain days of the week. Never take work home without the resolve to get it done that evening. It’s fatal to take it thinking, ‘I’ll see how I feel.’ You probably will not get it done and then you will feel guilty and your self-worth will have taken a knock.
2) What are weekends for? If you have used your weekend to really enhance your work/life balance in whatever way suits you, then early on Sunday evening you may experience the STB. The Sunday Teatime Blip is when the refreshing diversion of the weekend ends abruptly at the spectre of work in the morning. You are now at work in your head and your weekend break has ended prematurely. A good way to avoid this unhelpful state is to plan some activity or social get-together for the evening so that your mind is less likely to wander to work.
3) Contactable at home? Other than in really exceptional cases, is it really necessary? Perhaps you cannot stop your boss, but what about your team? Are you that indispensable? Perhaps it makes you feel good? Perhaps they are just playing to your ego and letting you take decisions they should be taking themselves?
4) Time management away from work: Are you happy with your time management outside work? Maybe it suits you to have no plan and just chill out for an evening or a weekend. Perhaps that is just what you need for once and it will do you good. But the law of reality dictates that you always have some household matters outstanding. You may be the sort who likes to deal with them before you can really relax or maybe you take the view that it can wait until you feel like it. Why does today something which can wait until tomorrow? All that matters is that you protect yourself from self-induced stress by arranging your time and responsibilities away from work in such a way that you do not feel bad about it.
5) Exercise, relaxation, diet, pride in your appearance and physical condition: It would be tedious and not appreciated if I laboured these issues on which so many magazines seem to thrive. In the context of this book, the only point to make is that all such things play a bigger part in one’s wellbeing than is generally realized. The close relationship between stress and how you feel about yourself is obvious.
6) Holidays: Do you always take your full annual allocation? It is misguided not to do so.
7) Journey home. Allow yourself to be debriefing on the day up to a halfway landmark and then focus on what awaits you at home.
8) Get those clothes off: Change into something different as soon as you get home. To some it may seem of little consequence, but it is good psychology. Home is home.
9) Leave a Friday evening list: On a Friday evening leave a brief list of the main things which will require your attention on the following Monday and then forget about them.
Wish you a good health. Besides if you do have any questions give me a call: https://clarity.fm/joy-brotonath